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The World Wave and Tidal Report 2011-2015
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace    Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace

Equipment ID   : 919
Equipment name   : The World Wave and Tidal Report 2011-2015
Category   : Research Reports
Specifications   : Name of the Report :
The World Wave and Tidal Report 2011-2015

Publication Date : 20 January 2011

Contents

1 Executive Summary and Conclusions ........15
1.1 Introduction to the Report ........16
1.2 Summary of Market Forecasts .............16
1.3 Conclusions ...........18

2 Market Drivers and Constraints .........19
2.1 Market Drivers ............20

3 Introduction to the Wave & Tidal Industry ..........27
3.1 Technology Development ...........28
3.2 Research, Development and Test Sites ...........29
3.3 Manufacturing .............34
3.4 Components .............35

4 Project Lifecycle .............41
4.1 Pre-installation Surveys .............42
4.2 Installation.............49
4.3 Grid Connection .............52
4.4 Operations and Maintenance..............53

5 Wave ...............57
5.1 Introduction ..............58
5.2 Available Resource ............60
5.3 Wave Resource by Region/Country ............66
5.4 Development History ............73
5.5 Classification of Devices & Technology Overview ........75
5.6 Wave Energy Devices .........79

6 Tidal Current Stream ........103
6.1 Introduction ...............104
6.2 Available Resource .............106
6.3 Available Resource by Region ..............112
6.4 Technology Development........120
6.5 Classification of Devices & Technology Overview .............121
6.6 Tidal Current Stream Energy Devices ........124

7 Market Issues ..........147
7.1 Costs .........148
7.2 Financing ........149
7.3 Supply Chain Development ..........149
7.4 Grid ..............150
7.5 Survivability .......150

8 Key Markets .........153
8.1 Market Types ..............154
8.2 Australia ..........156
8.3 Canada ...........157
8.4 France ...........159
8.5 Norway ............160
8.6 Portugal............162
8.7 UK ..............162
8.8 USA ...............168
8.9 Other Markets ...............172
8.9.1 China .......173
8.9.2 Denmark ........174
8.9.3 Ireland ...........175
8.9.4 New Zealand ............176
8.9.5 Republic of Korea ..........177
8.9.6 Spain ...........178
8.9.7 Sweden .............179

9 Market Forecasts ...........181
9.1 Methodology .............182
9.2 Wave & Tidal Current Stream ..............183
9.3 Wave ..............191
9.4 Tidal Current Stream ..........196

Figures

Figure 1: Wave & Tidal Current Stream – Installed Capacity 2006-2015 .........16
Figure 2: Wave & Tidal Current Stream – Installed Capacity by Sector 2006-2015 ....... 17
Figure 3: Wave & Tidal Current Stream – Capital Expenditure 2006-2015 ............17
Figure 4: Capital Expenditure by Sector 2006-2015 .............18
Figure 5: Global Primary Energy Demand 1965-2009 ........23
Figure 6: Global Electricity Generation Forecast by Fuel Type 2007-2035 ........24
Figure 7: Stages of Technology Development .................28
Figure 8: Wave Star Energy Device at DANWEC .............29
Figure 9: Nissum Bredning Test Station............30
Figure 10: Fall of Warness Tidal Site at EMEC ...........31
Figure 11: Testing of Evopod on the Tees Barrage ...........32
Figure 12: Installation of the Wave Hub Termination and Distribution Unit ...........32
Figure 13: Fabrication of a PowerBuoy .............34
Figure 14: Assembly of Components ...........34
Figure 15: Turbine Blade/Foil Fabrication ..........35
Figure 16: Armature coil (left) and permanent magnet rotor (right) .............35
Figure 17: Generator Assembly for TGU..........36
Figure 18: The Wave Dragon prototype after breaking its moorings in 2004 ...........36
Figure 19: Pile Driving for Offshore Wind Farms .........37
Figure 20: ROV operable mooring connector (left) and vertical load anchor............38
Figure 21: Male Ballgrab Connector during Mooring Line Installation .............39
Figure 22: Composite Bearings for Rotary Marine Applications ...........40
Figure 23: SeaGen Gearbox .................40
Figure 24: A Typical Inshore Survey Spread ...............44
Figure 25: Side scan sonar and example imagery .............44
Figure 26: Side scan sonar data showing different seabed classifications ...........44
Figure 27: Applied Acoustics sub bottom profiler and sample record ........45
Figure 28: Survey results and operations for the OpenHydro Alderney tidal project ...... 45
Figure 29: Twin-hulled Seabed AUV and collected imagery .............47
Figure 30: Towed Aquatic Resource Assessment System.........48
Figure 31: Scaneagle UAV (Left) and Blimp-Cam ...............48
Figure 32: Sullom Voe Tug/Workboat and Colwyn Bay Workboat ............49
Figure 33: Apollo Shear-leg Crane, Deep Diver and Kraken Jack-Up .......49
Figure 34: MPI Resolution Jack-Up Vessel ...............50
Figure 35: Heavy Lift vessel from Jumbo Offshore ...........50
Figure 36: Installation Vessel and Commercial Diver ..........50
Figure 37: MCT Installer Concept ................1
Figure 38: The Cables for the Wave Hub (left) and a Fiobuoy ...........51
Figure 39: Cable Plough .............52
Figure 40: Rock Dumping Process and Vessel (Tideway Rollingstone) ..............52
Figure 41: 3 x 1200mm2 150kV export cable ........53
Figure 42: 11kV, 400A, 3-phase, 1MW wet mate connector ...............53
Figure 43: Control room of Red Eléctrica de España .............54
Figure 44: Inspector USV (left) and Sentry USV .....................54
Figure 45: Personnel transfer basket (left) and access to wind turbines...........55
Figure 46: Seagen in maintenance configuration ............55
Figure 47: Wave anatomy and particle motion (near-shore) ..............58
Figure 48: Refraction in shallow water ..............59
Figure 49: Deploying a wave buoy off New Zealand ................60
Figure 50: ‘‘WorldWaves’’ Wave Energy Map (kW/m) ......61
Figure 51: Hs forecast for the UK and North Sea ...........62
Figure 52: SBE26Plus and MIDAS DWR Bottom Pressure Recorder ...............63
Figure 53: Seawatch Mini II Wave Buoy (left) and ODAS Buoy ...................63
Figure 54: Liquid Robotics WaveGlider (left) and the Harbor Wing USV ..........64
Figure 55: Multi-static Wave Radar Coverage ...............64
Figure 56: Africa Wave Power Map ..............66
Figure 57: Asia Wave Power Map ...............66
Figure 58: Australasia wave power map ................67
Figure 59: Annual wave energy on the Australian continental shelf .............67
Figure 60: North America wave power map ...............68
Figure 61: South America wave power map ...........70
Figure 62: Europe wave power map ..............71
Figure 63: Annual UK wave power map (kW/m of Wave Front) ..............72
Figure 64: OWC principle of operation and the LIMPET ...................75
Figure 65: Wave Roller principle of operation ................ 76
Figure 66: Overtopping principle of operation and the Wave Dragon ..........76
Figure 67: Across-flow Turgo turbine (left) and in-line propeller turbine (right) ........77
Figure 68: Wells Turbine design .................78
Figure 69: Oyster concept ............79
Figure 70: Oyster 2 concept design .............80
Figure 71: ITC desalination plant in the Canary Islands .............81
Figure 72: AWS 2004 prototype ..........81
Figure 73: 1/9th scale AWS-III device in Loch Ness ..........82
Figure 74: CETO Concept ............83
Figure 75: Trials of CETO 1 and 2 in 2007 and 2008 .................83
Figure 76: Anaconda concept ..........85
Figure 77: Trials at the QinetiQ test tank in Gosport ..............85
Figure 78: Dexawave 1/10th scale model under test at Limfjorden ........86
Figure 79: Dexawave commercial concept .......86
Figure 80: Poseidon Demonstrator .........87
Figure 81: Poseidon components and concept ........87
Figure 82: Wave Treader concept ..........88
Figure 83: Ocean Treader concept .............88
Figure 84: Seadog development unit ...........89
Figure 85: Proposed Seadog installation at Freeport ..............89
Figure 86: Water Wings and Langlee structure concept .......90
Figure 87: OE Buoy development unit ...........91
Figure 88: HydroAir principles ..............91
Figure 89: OE Buoy development unit hull (left) and turbine ............91
Figure 90: OPT PowerBuoy Concept .........92
Figure 91: OPT APB (left) and interior of a USP ..............93
Figure 92: Oceanlinx MK1 WEC ............94
Figure 93: Oceanlinx MK3PC WEC ...........95
Figure 98: P2 WEC .........96
Figure 99: Components and structure of the P2 ...........96
Figure 96: Assembly of power systems (left) and tubes for the E.ON P2 ........97
Figure 97: Seabased WEC Concept ........98
Figure 98: Seabased WEC and buoys ..........98
Figure 99: Wavebob prototype ...........99
Figure 100: Wave Dragon concept (right) and turbine ..........100
Figure 101: Wave Dragon prototype at Nissum Breding .............101
Figure 102: Wavegen Limpet, Islay, Scotland ..............101
Figure 103: Construction of the turbine gallery at Mutriku ..............102
Figure 104: Spring / Neap cycle ..............105
Figure 105: Major ocean currents .........106
Figure 106: Current strength & direction from Galveston Bay, Sept. 2010 ..........106
Figure 107: WFS Technologies underwater radio modem & metocean buoy ..........107
Figure 108: Mooring options (bottom frame & buoyed) & additional sensors ...........08
Figure 109: Aanderaa RCM-9 (left) & Valeport 308 Mechanical Current Meters ......... 108
Figure 110: Sentinel ADCP (left) and FSI 2D ACM ............108
Figure 111: InterOceanSystems S4 & Valeport MIDAS EM current meters ............109
Figure 112: Estimates of tidal energy flux ..................109
Figure 113: Tidal energy projects in South Korea (and proposed capacity) ...........113
Figure 114: Annual kinetic energy on the Australian continental shelf ...............113
Figure 115: Tidal potential in the Bay of Fundy ..............114
Figure 116: Tidal energy locations in the USA studied by EPRI ............115
Figure 117: Peak tidal velocities, and practical resources around Ireland ..........117
Figure 118: UK Deep Water Tides ...........119
Figure 119: Tidal resources in Northern Irish waters ..................119
Figure 120: Unducted horizontal axis turbine ..............121
Figure 121: Ducted horizontal axis turbine ........121
Figure 122: Oscillating Hydrofoil TCD..............121
Figure 123: Bi-directional rotor ............122
Figure 124: OpenHydro turbine (left) and the Seapower EXIM .........122
Figure 125: GHT at Uldolmok (left), & Cycloidal propulsion unit ............123
Figure 126: VIVACE principles ............123
Figure 127: Atlantis Resources AK-1000 & Skandi Skolten vessel ..............124
Figure 128: Atlantis Resources AS-400 (left) and AN-400 at San Remo ..........124
Figure 129: Blue Energy Turbine components .............126
Figure 130: Clean Current 65kW turbine at Race Rocks demo site .............127
Figure 131: Hammerfest Strøm prototype (left) and HS1000 concept ...........128
Figure 132: Morild concept ............129
Figure 133: Rotech Tidal Turbine ..........130
Figure 134: Rotech T800 mass Flow Excavator ...............130
Figure 135: SeaGen (Strangford Lough) .......131
Figure 136: Fully submerged SeaGen concept ............132
Figure 137: MCT Installer concept ............133
Figure 138: Proteus concept showing rotor and shutters..............134
Figure 139: Proteus demonstrator in Hull ...........134
Figure 140: EnCurrent Turbine on pontoons ............. 135
Figure 141: TGU Module ...........136
Figure 142: Eastport TGU demonstrator on the ‘Energy Tide 2’ barge .............137
Figure 143: Open Centre Turbine test unit at EMEC, and seabed concept ..............138
Figure 144: Transport of the OCT core component to the Bay of Fundy ..................139
Figure 145: OpenHydro Installer ...............139
Figure 146: Trial assembly of the OCT in the Bay of Fundy .............140
Figure 147: Pulse Stream concept ...........141
Figure 148: PS100 demonstrator/development unit in the Humber Estuary .......141
Figure 149: 1/5th scale version of the SRTT .............142
Figure 150: Deep-Gen ...............143
Figure 151: Tocardo Aqua turbine and the Oosterschelde sea defenses .............144
Figure 152: An early version of the Verdant Power ‘Freeflow’ device ...........145
Figure 153: Voith Hydro tidal turbine (110kW prototype) ...............146
Figure 154: Early Renetec concept for the Sea Turtle project ...............146
Figure 155: Fractured force transducer and view of it in position ..............151
Figure 156: Data centre cooling systems and a Google facility........154
Figure 157: UK Renewable Energy Zone..............164
Figure 158: Installed Capacity 2006-2015.............183
Figure 159: Installed Capacity – Forecast vs. Historic .............183
Figure 160: Installed Capacity by Sector 2006-2015 ............184
Figure 161: Installed Capacity by Project Type 2006-15 ............184
Figure 162: Installed Capacity by Project Type, Forecast vs. Historic ............185
Figure 163: Capital Expenditure 2006-2015 ..........185
Figure 164: Capital Expenditure Forecast vs. Historic ...........186
Figure 165: Capital Expenditure by Sector 2006-2015 .............186
Figure 166: Number of Units 2006-2015 ...........187
Figure 167: Number of Units – Forecast vs. Historic ...........187
Figure 168: Number of Units by Sector 2006-2015 ............188
Figure 169: Number of Units by Project Type 2006-2015 ..........188
Figure 170: Number of Units by Project Type – Forecast vs. Historic ..........189
Figure 171: Average Unit Size 2006-2015 ............189
Figure 172: Wave – Installed Capacity 2006-2015 ...........191
Figure 173: Wave – Installed Capacity – Forecast vs. Historic ............191
Figure 174: Wave – Installed Capacity by Project Type 2006-2015 ...........192
Figure 175: Wave – Installed Capacity by Project Type – Forecast vs. Historic .......... 192
Figure 176: Wave – Capital Expenditure 2006-2015 ...............193
Figure 177: Wave – Number of Units 2006-2015 ...........194
Figure 178: Wave – Numbers of Units – Forecast vs. Historic ..........194
Figure 179: Wave – Number of Units by Project Type 2006-2015 ...........195
Figure 180: Wave – Number of Units by Project Type – Forecast vs. Historic ............. 195
Figure 181: Tidal Current Stream – Installed Capacity 2006-2015 .............. 196
Figure 182: Tidal Current Stream – Installed Capacity – Forecast vs. Historic ............ 196
Figure 183: Tidal Current Stream – Installed Capacity by Project Type 2006-2015 ..... 197
Figure 184: Tidal Current Stream – Installed Capacity by Project Type – Forecast vs.
Historic ...........197
Figure 185: Tidal Current Stream – Capital Expenditure 2006-2015 ............198
Figure 186: Tidal Current Stream – Number of Units 2006-2015 ...............199
Figure 187: Tidal Current Stream – Number of Units – Forecast vs. Historic......... 199
Figure 188: Tidal Current Stream – Number of Units by Project Type 2006-2015 ....... 200
Figure 189: Tidal Current Stream – Number of Units by Project Type – Forecast vs.
Historic ........... 200

Tables

Table 3: EU 2020 Requirements ...............22
Table 4: Summary of effects of tidal stream energy schemes ...........46
Table 5: California’s theoretical deep water wave energy potential ..........69
Table 6: Prospective Tidal Power Sites ..............111
Table 7: Tidal Power Resources by province in Canada ..............115
Table 8: Technically extractable tidal power resources by state in the USA ................. 116
Table 9: Primary UK Tidal Current Sites ............118
Table 10: UK investment into wave & tidal .........163
Table 11: Installed Capacity 2006-2015 ............183
Table 12: Installed Capacity by Sector 2006-2015 ...........184
Table 13: Installed Capacity by Project Type 2006-2015.......184
Table 14: Capital Expenditure 2006-2015 ..............185
Table 15: Capital Expenditure by Sector 2006-2015 ................186
Table 16: Number of Units 2006-2015 .............187
Table 17: Number of Units by Sector 2006-2015 ...........188
Table 18: Number of Units by Project Type 2006-2015 ..........188
Table 19: Average Unit Size 2006-2015 ..............189
Table 20: Wave – Installed Capacity 2006-2015 ..............191
Table 21: Wave – Installed Capacity by Project Type 2006-2015 ........192
Table 22: Wave – Capital Expenditure 2006-2015 ...........193
Table 23: Wave – Number of Units 2006-2015 ...........194
Table 24: Wave – Number of Units by Project Type 2006-2015 .......195
Table 25: Tidal Current Stream – Installed Capacity 2006-2015 ...........196
Table 26: Tidal Current Stream – Installed Capacity by Project Type 2006-2015 ........ 197
Table 27: Tidal Current Stream – Capital Expenditure 2006-2015 ............198
Table 28: Tidal Current Stream – Number of Units 2006-2015 .........199
Table 29: Tidal Current Stream – Number of Units by Project Type 2006-2015 ........... 200

3 Introduction to Wave & Tidal Technology

3.2 Research, Development and Test Sites

Introduction
A number of locations have been identified and developed as test sites for scale or fullsize
wave or tidal current stream devices. The meteorological and oceanographic
conditions (the wave, wind, tidal currents – known collectively as metocean) which
prevail at these different locations vary from relatively sheltered and benign to what is
considered to be severe and highly exposed. Early development work using scaled
devices can be conducted in a wide range of locations including flooded quarries, rivers,
and sheltered coastal locations in addition to the controlled conditions available from
scientific test tanks. Devices at any scale can be towed through the water to simulate
strong tidal currents.

Canada

Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy (FORCE)
The Bay of Fundy, in Nova Scotia, Canada, is the home of FORCE, a co-operative of
researchers, scientists, developers and regulators.

In 2008 FORCE announced a tidal energy test facility which became operational in
2009. In water depths of 45m, in the Minas Passage, subsea cable and connection units
were installed and connected to shore by the Nova Scotia Department of Energy and its
contractor Minas Basin Power & Pulp. The strength of the tidal currents (up to 5m/s)
places operational limits on the construction and operation of the devices, especially if
they are still at the early stages of development. It appears likely that the facility will
mainly see the installation of already proven devices that can actively contribute to the
electricity demand of the region. The project is funded by the National government, as
well as Alberta-based oil and gas producer EnCana.

OpenHydro installed a tidal turbine at the site in 2009. Other likely future clients are
Clean Current (working with Alstom) and Marine Current Turbines (working with Minas
Basin Power & Pulp).

In November 2010 FORCE received a C$20 million grant, which will be used to develop
a large scale, commercial demonstration facility. This is the largest single grant available
under the renewable and clean energy portion of Canada’s Clean Energy Fund. FORCE
has signed a C$11 million contract with Prysmian for the production and installation of
four subsea cables, due to be installed in 2011. Each of the cables has the capacity for
16MW, giving a total of up to 64MW which can deliver power straight into the grid. Each
cable is designed to allow the addition of more tidal devices in the future and the total
capacity of all four cables is around 64 devices.

Denmark

Danish Wave Energy Test Centre (DANWEC)
A new Danish test centre opened in 2009 in Hantsholm, near the existing Nissum
Bredning test centre. DANWEC has a budget of 50m DKK. The financing was arranged
by Vaekstforum, Aalborg University, Municipality of Thisted, Hanstholm Port and Port
Forum. The goal is to make Hanstholm not just Denmark’s, but Europe’s preferred test
site of wave energy. The first device installed in 2009 was the Wave Star Energy test
section. At the end of 2010 the Dexawave converter was being prepared for launch.

Nissum Bredning Test Station for Wave Energy
This facility is part of the Nordic Folkecentre for Renewable Energy which was
established in 2000 and is located at Nissum Bredning, Denmark. The location is seen
as ideal for scale model testing as the wave climate is approximately 1/10th of the
conditions of the North Sea. In 2008 the facility was updated and the laboratory
improved. The facilities consist of a 5 x 7m platform, built in 3.5m of water and
connected to the beach via an about 140m long and 1m wide bridge. To date the test
station has accommodated devices from Ecofys, Wave Dragon and Wave Star Energy.

4 Project Lifecycle

4.1 Pre-installation Surveys

Site Assessments
Once a location for a wave or tidal energy development has been identified from
modelling and previous regional studies, a long period of observation of wave and/or
tidal current observations will be made. The sensing equipment used to measure tidal
currents and wave activity are discussed separately later in the report but it is typical for
a full suite of metocean measurements to be made in one campaign as the unit cost of
adding extra sensors is normally far outweighed by the day-rates of the vessels
concerned. Full year records of surface wind, wave and tidal current activity are
invaluable in scheduling of procurement, manufacturing and installation activities that
may only be able to take place during a short weather window and that may require the
services of vessels and equipment that are in high demand elsewhere (such as jack-up
platforms or heavy lift vessels).

Conceptual Studies
Initial site assessment data is often used to formulate a conceptual design for a
particular site. Such studies help developers identify potential issues with regard to
permitting, grid connection, access, local suppliers and contractors etc, so that
discussions and feedback can take place early in the overall design process and the
plan accepted or rejected before more costly design and engineering work is
undertaken. They may form the basis of approaches to potential investors and for the
public relations material used to gauge levels of support or objections from local or
national stakeholders. Care must be taken to understand the methodology by which
studies are compiled and the areas of uncertainty that exist due to the necessary
assumptions that must be made.

Conceptual studies will typically be generated by the device manufacturer in association
with a specialist consultancy firm or agency. For example, EPRI produced such
conceptual design study in 2004 for a proposed development involving the Pelamis
wave energy device for a location off San Francisco that used EPRI’s previously
developed methodology. Estimates of the number of devices possible for the site, and
the potential electrical output were produced using publically available datasets including
long term oceanographic wave sensor moorings, device specifications from Pelamis,
and practical considerations such as restricted areas, sewage outfalls and mooring
locations. Cost assessments of providing the necessary equipment and cabling for grid
connection were also made.

Decommissioning Plans
Following similar trends in both the oil & gas and wind sectors, wave and tidal
developments will need to produce an eventual decommissioning plan before
construction approval is granted. Such plans outline the size, number and material of the
items to be decommissioned, possible implications of decommissioning with respect to
the local environment both at sea and ashore, the options for recycling of non-reusable
components, and consultations with relevant parties that must take place. Legislation will
vary from country to country but will likely be similar to that which covers offshore
installations in UK waters under the Energy Act of 2004. Devices under test at facilities
such as EMEC and the Wave Hub have decommissioning plans in place that suit the
relatively short term nature of their operation.

As wave and tidal energy resources are essentially of infinite duration, decommissioning
of a particular device will likely be due to its reaching the end of its economically useful
life and where the costs of ongoing repair would be too high. The design life for the
majority of devices featured in the report is between 20 and 30 years, and it is unlikely
that re-use would be possible due to the effects of fatigues and corrosion that will be
present after prolonged exposure in a marine environment. This differs from the oil and
gas situation where the reservoirs involved have a limited lifespan and once depleted
(beyond a recoverable pressure and flow rate), the facilities involved are of no further
use and can (in some cases) be relocated elsewhere either in part or as complete units.

It is possible that inter-array cabling can be re-used with replacement devices, and then
be connected to existing grid-export infrastructure, but it may be considered more
economic to replace cabling along with the devices. Power cables containing copper or
aluminium have inherent value as scrap metal – they can be recycled with little
processing. Connectors and device components will contain different materials and
would normally require separation (in workshops onshore) before recycling. Steel
structures can be recycled into new steel products once contaminants are removed and
the structural elements broken down to a suitable size. Buoyancy foam used to support
some devices can (in some cases) be reduced to its original components to be re-used
or at least disposed of safely.

In general, removal of devices and infrastructure will be simply a reversal of installation.
Floating devices can be easily disconnected and towed from location, whereas fixed
seabed devices will require heavy-lift equipment. Cables and pipes can be reeled onto
drums or cut into sections prior to retrieval. Removal of mooring components from the
seabed may require the use of unbolting or cutting tools mounted on ROV or operated
by divers, and the removal of suction anchors may require high pressure water jetting

Engineering surveys require multiple sensors to be used but not all can deployed from a
single vessel in a single operation due to issues including acoustic interference as well
as the practicalities of towing multiple pieces of equipment. One phase of operations
would typically include the gathering of bathymetry, seabed imagery and metallic object
detection, and a subsequent phase would include geophysical investigation.

It is also likely that different sized vessels will be used to cover the survey area,
particularly if very shallow areas up to the shore-line are to be surveyed – perhaps for
the proposed route that a power cable would take from the offshore energy development
to an onshore sub-station. This ‘beach landing’ survey may also include the use of
commercial divers to make visual observations, as well as laser-scanning of beach
topography from either a vehicle or aircraft. Vessels used for engineering surveys can
include those dedicated and optimised for the role, or those that are adapted for use on
a temporary basis.

Vessel mounted ‘swath’ or ‘multibeam’ echo-sounding sonar (MBES) are the tools of
choice for gathering bathymetry data for engineering surveys as they allow multiple
depth measurements to be made across a width (the swath) of between 2 and 15 times
the water depth as the vessel moves forward. Single-beam echo-sounders (SBES)
measure a single depth below the vessel and are still used as a quality check for MBES,
or are operated during phases of the survey when the MBES is not operating.

Seabed imagery is gathered using side-scan sonar (SSS) mounted on towfish that are
towed behind the survey vessel and that project pulses of acoustic energy to the side of
their track. Objects on the seabed absorb some of the energy but some will be reflected
and so return to the sonar. The intensity of the reflected pulse can be used to infer the
reflective characteristics of the seabed, and the data processed to map different
ecological habitats (areas of gravel, seagrass, etc.).

Geophysical tools allow for the mapping of the layers of material that make up the
seabed and that will form the ground under which seabed-mounted devices will stand, or
that moored devices will be anchored into. The technique used for this is akin to that
used for the mapping of potential oil and gas deposits.

6 Tidal Current Stream

Given each year by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, which hailed its
potential ‘to alleviate the world-wide crisis in energy’. The design is based on the straight
bladed Darrieus rotor patented in 1931, with the blades each having a twist along their
length to remove the effects of vibration, and having a cross-section similar to an
airplanes wing. It can operate in flows from any direction but will always rotate in a
constant direction. The first tidal power generation from a GHT rotor was at Uldolmok,
South Korea in 2002 using a rotor built by GCK Technology and tested by KORDI. The
1m diameter turbine rotated at between 160 and 180 rpm in a 2m/s tidal flow. A 2.2m
diameter rotor was also tested. Other trials have included those at Cape Cod in 1996,
Maine in 2003m, Shelter Island (New York) in 2004 and on the Merimack River in 2004.

Cycloidal rotors have been proposed as a pitch controlled, vertical axis device that could
operate with the blades projecting upwards or downwards. The Cycloidal rotor would
have a number of blades mounted vertically on a rotating disc. As water flows over a
blade it generates lift and drag forces which will cause the entire disc to rotate. Each
blade has its own pivot point about which it can rotate – this allows for optimisation of
blade pitch through the use of hydraulic or electrical means. The UK Company QinetiQ
has been involved in assessing the cycloidal rotor for tidal current stream applications.68
Cycloidal Combined propulsion and steering systems using cycloidal rotors were first
designed over 80 years ago (by Voith from an idea by the Austrian engineer Ernst
Schneider) and are used for high thrust applications such as tugs and vessel
manoeuvring.

A number of proposed devices counter the issue of bi-directional flow by allowing the
whole assembly to rotate about a fixed point.

Oscillating Hydrofoils
A hydrofoil is a structure with a wing-like cross-section that (like a wing) creates lift due
to pressure differentials between the top and bottom surfaces. It is possible to utilise this
principle to use the flow of water to move a hydrofoil in vertical direction. This motion is
then captured using a hydraulic piston connected at the fulcrum that in turn drives a
rotary hydraulic generator either on the device itself or remotely. The pitch of the
hydrofoil needs to be controllable so that it can repeat the motion in the other vertical
direction.

Vortex induced motion
When water flows past an object, turbulence will occur on the downstream side of the
object, and this turbulence can be used to generate some motion of the object if it is able
to move. This approach is used by the VIVACE tidal current stream device that has been
developed by the University of Michigan and Vortex Hydro Energy, and utilises
horizontally aligned cylinders that are free to move vertically due to the turbulence and
so-called vortex induced vibration caused by the flow (their horizontal motion is
restrained by tracks). This vertical motion is converted to electrical power through the
use of linear generators mounted in the vertical tracks.

8 Key Markets

8.2 Australia

Market Development/History
Australia’s energy consumption is currently dominated by coal, petroleum and natural
gas. The contribution of renewables to the energy mix is extremely limited with the
majority delivered through biomass and hydro. Wave energy is potentially attractive as
the majority of Australia’s population is concentrated in coastal areas within reach of
substantial wave resources. In 2008 an independent report commissioned by wave
energy developer Carnegie Corporation found that at least 35% of Australia’s current
base‐load power needs could be economically generated from waves.

There are also many settlements and industrial outposts that are far from the nearest
electricity grid that could potentially benefit from renewably sourced electricity as well as
desalinization. Australian wave energy developers (Carnegie and Oceanlinx) have been
keen to promote these additional benefits. For example, Carnegie (manufacturer of the
CETO system) won $250,000 from the National Desalination Centre to demonstrate its
system in 2010, and Oceanlinx (then known as Energetech) demonstrated its
desalinisation system in 2005. Carnegie is currently working on the deployment of a
commercial scale demonstration unit off Garden Island, Western Australia.

Policy
Funding and legislation is arranged on State and National (federal) levels with a certain
degree of overlap in some cases. The Australian federal government has an overarching
policy objective of sourcing 20% of its energy supply from renewable energy sources by
2020.

There have been multiple pilot and demonstration projects in Australia of wave energy
devices, with support from government, military and private investors. However,
observers have commented that commercialisation of marine renewable technology in
Australia is restricted by an immature policy environment, and that many developers fail
to gain follow-on support and instead venture overseas.

In 2009 the Federal Government announced the AUS $435 million Renewable Energy
Demonstration Program (REDP), designed to take proven pilot projects through to
commercialisation. REDP was launched at Carnegie's pilot plant, however, the company
eventually missed out on funding, as did Oceanlinx. The only wave energy company to
receive a substantial grant was based in the USA (Ocean Power Technologies) who
were awarded AUS $66.5 million to build a 19MW power project off the coast of Victoria.

Lower levels of support are available through the Climate Ready Program, which offers
matching grants from AUS $50,000 to $5 million to support research and development,
proof-of-concept and early-stage commercialisation activities to develop solutions to
climate change.

In March 2010, as part of the Clean Energy Initiative, legislation passed to create the
Australian Centre for Renewable Energy (ACRE) which will consolidate governmental
investments of more than AUS $560 million to develop and deploy renewable energy. An
announcement followed in May that the Australian Government would commit a further
AUS $652.2 million over four years to establish a Renewable Energy Future Fund. This
fund will be used to provide additional support for the deployment of large and smallscale
renewable projects as well as enhancing the take-up of industrial, commercial and
residential energy efficiency.

In November 2010, following an election commitment by Julia Gillard’s Labour Party,
consultation began on a $100m Renewable Energy Venture Capital Fund (REVC). The
intention of the RECV fund is to encourage the development of renewable technologies
by making critical early-stage investments to help commercialise emerging renewable
technologies.

Market Mechanisms
In 2001 the Australian Government introduced a Mandatory Renewable Energy Target
(MRET) scheme with the aim of increasing electricity generation from renewable sources
by 9500 gigawatt hours a year by 2010. The MRET requires electricity retailers and
major electricity users to purchase a specified percentage of their electricity from
renewable energy generators. These parties must acquire Renewable Energy
Certificates (RECs) which demonstrate that they have sourced power from renewable
energy generators. Each REC represents one MWh of electricity and a penalty is applied
if an electricity retailer or major user has not acquired enough RECs to meet their annual
target under the legislation.

In order to meet the challenging 2020 targets, Australia has introduced the Renewable
Energy Target (RET) scheme which increases the previous MRET from 9500 gigawatt
hours of renewable energy by 2010 to 45,000 GWh by 2020.

9 Market Forecasts

Almost half of all wave capacity coming online in the next five years is forecast to be
from commercial scale projects. This trend will be spearheaded by maturing
technologies from companies such as Pelamis Wave Power and Aquamarine that are
leading in the deployment of multiple-unit arrays. The majority of these commercial
projects will be off Scotland and involve major utility companies as the UK first wave and
tidal round begins installations.

While 80% of capacity in the period 2011-2015 is expected to come from commercial
projects, a good level of full-scale prototype (13%) and pre-commercial projects are
expected. There is upside potential here as a number of technology developers are yet
to announce their plans. Given the right market mechanisms and legislation additional
projects are possible.

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