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The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace    

Equipment ID   : 913
Equipment name   : The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016
Category   : Research Reports
Specifications   : Name of the Report :
The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016

Contents

1 Executive Summary ......15
1.1 Introduction .......16
1.2 The Market......17
1.3 A Growing Aceptance .........18

2 Introduction ........21
2.1 Unmanned vehicles ........22
2.2 Unmanned vehicles in the marine sector ......23
2.3 AUV Rationale ........25
2.4 What are the alternatives to using AUV?.........26
2.5 AUV Types.............30
2.6 Significant Points in AUV History .........34

3 AUV Applications .........37
3.1 Overview ...........38
3.2 Commercial Survey .......40
3.3 Light Intervention .........53
3.4 Inspection..........55
3.5 Military Applications .........58
3.6 Research Applications ..........73

4 AUV Technology ........83
4.1 Introduction ..........84
4.2 Autonomy and Control ..........85
4.3 Communications .........89
4.4 Hull Shape, materials and buoyancy ...........93
4.5 Launch and recovery systems .........97
4.6 Navigation and Positioning .........98
4.7 Power .........103
4.8 Propulsion and Manoeuvring ........107
4.9 AUV Sensors .........108

5 Market Forecasts .......117
5.1 AUV market drivers .........118
5.2 The existing AUV fleet .........121
5.3 The model – a scenario approach .........124
5.4 Oil & Gas Sector Forecasts – Deepwater Survey (Units) .........125
5.5 Oil & Gas Sector Forecasts – Deepwater Fields (Units) .......126
5.6 Oil & Gas Sector Forecasts – Pipeline Inspection (Units) .......127
5.7 Hydrographic (Units) .........128
5.8 Research (Units) ...........129
5.9 Submarine Cables (Units)........130
5.10 Military (Units) ........131
5.11 Totals (Units) ..........132
5.12 Totals (Units & Values) ..........133

6 Appendices ........135
6.1 Summary Tables ........136
6.2 AUV Developers & Manufacturers ........140
6.3 Academic Developers and Operators .......144
6.4 Operators .........147
6.5 Technology Providers .........148
6.6 AUVs ...........151
6.7 Gliding AUV .........189
6.8 MCM vehicles with an FO link .........191
6.9 AUV and USV programs in the US military .........194

Figures
Figure 1: Most Likely (Units) ...........17
Figure 2: Most Likely (Value) .........17
Figure 3: Big Dog ..........22
Figure 4: Dragon Runner ...........22
Figure 5: MQ-9 Reaper UAV ........22
Figure 6: Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Family Tree ........23
Figure 7: Protector USV .........24
Figure 8: Dorado/SeaKeeper USSV ..........24
Figure 9: Deep Flight 1..........26
Figure 10: Commercial Diver .........26
Figure 11: The original JIM atmospheric diving suit .........26
Figure 12: Hydro Products RCV225 and RCV125 (1980) ........27
Figure 13: Serpent Internal Pipeline Inspection ROV ........27
Figure 14: The Fugro Discovery offshore survey vessel .....28
Figure 15: Hull mounted SBP profiler .......28
Figure 16: Tees Navigator .......28
Figure 17: SM-30 Sonar mapping System .........28
Figure 18: AUV running a typical survey line pattern ...........29
Figure 19: Airborne laser mapping System ......29
Figure 20: MH-53E Sea Dragon helicopter towing a magentic influence sled.........30
Figure 21: Slocum Glider ..........30
Figure 22: Slocum Glider .........30
Figure 23: The Autonomous Inspection Vehicle (prototype) ........31
Figure 24: Screenshot of the VisualWorks inspection data integration software ......32
Figure 25: ALIVE AUV Approaching Wellhead .........32
Figure 26: Research vessel Polarstern ..........34
Figure 27: SPURV 1 ........34
Figure 28: Submarine deployed, weaponised Manta AUV – the future? ........35
Figure 29: Artists impression of an Inspection AUV ..........38
Figure 30: SAUVIM Intervention AUV ..........39
Figure 31: SeaBED AUV on an Archeological dive in the Aegean Sea .......39
Figure 32: Unmanned Semi-Submersible survey vehicle...........41
Figure 33: SMB Nesbitt of the Royal Navy Hydrographic fleet .......42
Figure 34: Dorado USSV on trial with the Canadian Navy ..........42
Figure 35: Jetswath survey vehicle ...........43
Figure 36: Modules on the Gavia Offshore Surveyor AUV ..........44
Figure 37: Harbour and dredged channel bathymetry data collected by the Gavia
Offshore Surveyor .......... 44
Figure 38: The working end of a cutter-suction dredger ...........45
Figure 39: Example screenshot of the MakaiPlan GIS ........46
Figure 40: Telecommunications cables in the Mediterranean ........47
Figure 41: Aqua Explorer 2000 AUV used for cable route surveys ......47
Figure 42: Catenary and Taut-Leg Mooring arrangements .......48
Figure 43: The Maersk Inspirer jack-up platform underway to the Volve Field .......49
Figure 44: Lunar Energy/Rotech Tidal Turbine farm ..........49
Figure 45: The Hywind floating offshore wind turbine being installed in 2009 .......49
Figure 46: The Peace in Africa diamond mining vessel .........51
Figure 47: The DBM Geosurvey M600 AUV ........51
Figure 48: Gas Hydrate Observatory .........52
Figure 49: Recovery of the Eagle Ray AUV ...........53
Figure 50: Nodules off New Zealand ......53
Figure 51: OKPO-6000 .........53
Figure 52: Swimmer AUV ........54
Figure 53: Subsea Christmas Tree valve assembly .............54
Figure 54: Planned layout of the Reliance field, offshore India ......54
Figure 55: MacArtney Focus 2 ROTV ........55
Figure 56: Inspection ROV with Xplisit camera system (inset) .......55
Figure 57: Major Pipelines in the North Sea ........56
Figure 58: Geosub .........56
Figure 59: Alistar 3000 tracking pipeline during trials in 2004 .....56
Figure 60: The Seawolf-A Inspection AUV ............57
Figure 61: The prototype Autonomous Inspection Vehicle ......57
Figure 62: ROV view of tracking a moving riser during trials ........58
Figure 63: Different pipelay methods .............58
Figure 64: U212 AIP submarine .........59
Figure 65: SLITA array and the Ocean Explorer AUV in 2008 .......60
Figure 66: Liberdade/XRay Glider ........60
Figure 67: Submarine deployed PLUSNet modules .........61
Figure 68: Influence seabed mines (blue) and a floating contact mine (black) discovered
on an Iraqi vessel in 200 .......61
Figure 69: The Saab AUV62 ......62
Figure 70: Remote Multi Mission Vehicle with SSS Towfish ........62
Figure 71: ASV 6000 SASS Q (ASV)........63
Figure 72: Dorado (DDRC-Canada) ..........63
Figure 73: Transphibian AUV ..........63
Figure 74: REMUS 100 .........63
Figure 75: Seafox EMDV .............64
Figure 76: Stanflex 100 USV with MCM SSS towfish (yellow) ......64
Figure 77: AUV CTD card .........65
Figure 78: Hydrographic chart for the 1944 D-Day beach landings .........66
Figure 79: Daurade AUV ...........66
Figure 80: Bushell’s Turtle .........67
Figure 81: British X-Craft midget submarine ........67
Figure 82: Italian manned torpedo ........67
Figure 83: X-class USV ..........67
Figure 84: Sea Owl Mk 2 USV .........67
Figure 85: Hovering AUV (showing thrusters, DVL and camera system) .......68
Figure 86: Dry-deck shelter ..........69
Figure 87: Saab SUBROV ........70
Figure 88: SeaOwl 500 .........70
Figure 89: The Kamen K-Max helicopter.........70
Figure 90: Lockheed Martin Mule UGV .........70
Figure 91: ASV SASS-Q ........71
Figure 92: ASV-9500.........71
Figure 93: X-3 .......71
Figure 94: Drug-running submarine captured by the Columbian Navy .......71
Figure 95: REMUS 100 fitted with an extandable surveillance camera .......71
Figure 96: The Running Gear Entanglement System ..........72
Figure 97: MK 30 Mod 2 ASW target (helicopter recovery) .......72
Figure 98: The winning team (Heriot-Watt University) at SAUC-E 2009 ........73
Figure 99: T and S data gathered by a Gliding AUV off Newfoundland in 2006......74
Figure 100: Data density gathered by gliding AUV (left) vs surface vessel .....74
Figure 101: Microstructure sensor on the SAMS REMUS 600 AUV ......75
Figure 102: Upwelling ...........76
Figure 103: Glider deployment ...........76
Figure 104: The two modes of the NEREUS AUV .......76
Figure 105: Summary of UNCLOS definitions .........77
Figure 106: Tuvaaq AUV..........78
Figure 107: Odyssey AUV (Lake Winnepasauke, New Hampshire) ........78
Figure 108: Wally the seabed crawler in test .........79
Figure 109: Fisheries echogram gathered by a HUGIN AUV .......80
Figure 110: Hydroid REMUS 100 AUV schematic ........84
Figure 111: MIT Odyssey IV AUV schematic (plan view) .........84
Figure 112: Marport SQX-1 AUV schematic ...........85
Figure 113: Control system hardware (without pressure casing) ...........85
Figure 114: AUV control processes and behaviours ..........86
Figure 115: A stuck REMUS 600 and a manipulator equipped LBV150 ROV ......86
Figure 116: VectorMap Screenshots showing image overlays ........87
Figure 117: SeeByte SeeTrack Military CAD/CAC module (integrated into the AUV) .... 88
Figure 118: SeeTrack Military screenshot showing MCM line plan and pre-acquired SSS
imagery .........88
Figure 119: Kongsberg Hugin operation and navigation screens ........89
Figure 120: Hydroid VIP screenshot .........89
Figure 121: Teledyne Benthos Acoustic Modem ........91
Figure 122: Wireless Fibre Systems SeaTooth modem.......91
Figure 123: The TILAC through-ice radio system concept .......92
Figure 124: Doppler shift as seen from Argos satellites........93
Figure 125: Sonobuoy launch tubes on a P-3 Orion marine patrol aircraft .......93
Figure 126: Seahorse AUV ..........93
Figure 127: Deep-C AUV ..........94
Figure 128: Autonomous Benthic Explorer ........94
Figure 129: Glass pressure sphere placement in the Kermonaut AUV .......94
Figure 130: Iver2 AUV ...........94
Figure 131: The nose section and interior components of a REMUS .....95
Figure 132: Titanium blanks prior to machining for the REMUS 3000 .....95
Figure 133: Forward section of the Autosub 6000 AUV .......95
Figure 134: Nereus AUV showing some of its 1,600 ceramic buoyancy spheres ......96
Figure 135: SMA actuator deformed (left) and returned to its original shape (right) ....96
Figure 136: Deployment of a Hugin 1000MR from a Norwegian naval vessel ......97
Figure 137: LARS options for the REMUS 6000 (left) and 600 (right) ........97
Figure 138: Launch and Recovery cradle for an Iver2 .........98
Figure 139: Eurodocker .......98
Figure 140: Iver2 (EcoMapper variant) ........98
Figure 141: T24 Ring laser gyro INS ......99
Figure 142: PHINS 6000 INS ............99
Figure 143: Sea Devil DVL & INS ...........99
Figure 144: NavQuest 600 Micro DVL .........99
Figure 145: HAUV performing a vertical slice hull inspection ........100
Figure 146: Remus Gateway Buoy ..........101
Figure 147: GIB-Plus Buoys ........101
Figure 148: Micron USBL (500m range) .......102
Figure 149: HIPAP USBL (5000m range) .........102
Figure 150: IUSBL transducer (left) and beacon (right) .....102
Figure 151: NASNet VRx unit (left) and Station (right)............103
Figure 152: Mini Intelligent Pressure Sensor .........103
Figure 153: Autosub 6000 battery box containing lithium-polymer cells ....104
Figure 154: Odessey IV Battery Pack (out of pressure sphere) .......104
Figure 155: Mesa Systems CAN120 12V inductive power transfer system .....105
Figure 156: SAUV II ........... 106
Figure 157: AE1 Diesel engine ...........107
Figure 158: 370B Diesel Engine (370 HP) .......107
Figure 159: IntegratedThruster (rim drive) .......107
Figure 160: Bionik Manta in tank tests .......108
Figure 161: Dual port camera system on a Iver2 AUV ........109
Figure 162: Imagery of Amphora collected using the Seabed AUV ......109
Figure 163: 3-Axis RS232 digital compass, less than 3cm per side ........110
Figure 164 SM2000 Imaging Sonar .......110
Figure 165 7128 Imaging Sonar .........110
Figure 166 Blueview DF900-2250 ..........110
Figure 167 DIDSON ..........110
Figure 168: Imagery from a Tritech Super SeaKing OAS ......111
Figure 169: SeaKing SS hardware and imagery ......112
Figure 170: The muscle AUV with acoustically transparent panels ......112
Figure 171: Real-time SAS SSS processing screens ......112
Figure 172: Sub-bottom profiler data (24kHz) .........113
Figure 173: 3D CHIRP SBP on an Atlas SeaOtter AUV .........113
Figure 174: 50m penetration AUV SBP...........113
Figure 175: Reson 7125 200/400kHz SBS (top left) on a Saab Double Eagle AUV .... 114
Figure 176: SBS bathymetry from SRDUK / Tritech .........114
Figure 177: Data acquisition screenshot for Atlas Fansweep 30 SBS (200/400kHz) ... 114
Figure 178: HUGIN 3000 with Kongsberg SBS .........115
Figure 179: GeoSwath-Plus transducers on a REMUS 100........115
Figure 180: AquaExplorer 2000 ..........116
Figure 181: World Offshore Oil & Gas Expenditure ........119
Figure 182: World Deepwater Oil & Gas Expenditure .......120
Figure 183: World AUV Population by Size & Application ........121
Figure 184: World AUV Population – Numbers Built by Water Depth .......122
Figure 185: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units) ........125
Figure 186: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units) .......126
Figure 187: Oil & Gas – Pipeline Inspection (Units) ........127
Figure 188: Oil & Gas – Pipeline Inspection (Units) .......128
Figure 189: Research (Units) ............129
Figure 190: Submarine Cables (Units) ..........130
Figure 191: Military (Units) ......131
Figure 192: Low Case (Units by Market Sector) ..........133
Figure 193: Most Likely (Units by Market Sector) ........133
Figure 194: Most Likely (Units by Market Sector) .........134
Figure 195: 475 AUV .............151
Figure 196: Autonomous Benthic Explorer ..........151
Figure 197: ALISTAR 3000 AUV .............152
Figure 198: ALISTER AUV (shore launch) ...........152
Figure 199: ALIVE .........153
Figure 200: APOGEE ..........153
Figure 201: Aqua Explorer 1000 .........154
Figure 202: Aqua Explorer 2 (AE-2) .........154
Figure 203: Aqua Explorer 2000 ...........154
Figure 204: Theseus (right), ARCS (centre), Explorer (left) ......154
Figure 205: ARIES .............155
Figure 206: Testing the SASS 6m Mk 2.........155
Figure 207: Prototype AIV trials and concept ............156
Figure 208: AUSS ............156
Figure 209: Images from AUSS .............156
Figure 210: ASM-X Demonstrator ...........157
Figure 211: CL1 Target AUV .........157
Figure 212: Autosub-1 .........157
Figure 213: Autosub 2 .........157
Figure 214: Autosub 6000 .........158
Figure 215: AUV62 (Sapphire) ..........158
Figure 216: AUV 62 Submarine Training Target ..........158
Figure 217: Bluefin-9 ...........159
Figure 218: Bluefin 12.......159
Figure 219: Bluefin-21 BPAUV on the LCS and during deployment .......160
Figure 220: Echo Mapper 2 ...........160
Figure 221: SSS (left) and SBS (right) data collected by the Echo Mapper ......160
Figure 222: CETUS-1 (left), and CETUS-2 (right) .......161
Figure 223: Cormoran........161
Figure 224: CR-02 under test in 2006.......161
Figure 225: C-Scout...........162
Figure 226: DeepC .........162
Figure 227: DepthX (ENDURANCE variant) .........163
Figure 228: Dorado .........163
Figure 229: Docking variant ..........163
Figure 230: Dorado ............164
Figure 231: Double Eagle Mark 3 SAROV with PROSAS .........164
Figure 232: Echo Ranger (LDUUV) ..........165
Figure 233: Extendable mast ......165
Figure 234: AsterX .............165
Figure 235: Fetch 3.5 .........166
Figure 236: NNEMO 1.........166
Figure 237: FOLAGA .......166
Figure 238: Gavia .......167
Figure 239: Geosub ...........167
Figure 240: Bluefin HAUV .........168
Figure 241: HUGIN 1000 on the aft deck of the Karmy MCM vessel ........168
Figure 242: HUGIN aluminium/oxygen fuel cell battery .......169
Figure 243: Infante .............169
Figure 244: Iver2 ...........170
Figure 245: Light AUV ..........170
Figure 246: LMRS Launch & Recovery Trials ........171
Figure 247: MACO (left) and Manta (right) ..........171
Figure 248: Marine Bird...........172
Figure 249: Marum MOVE .......172
Figure 250: MARV ...............172
Figure 251: MAUVE ..........172
Figure 252: MRUUV ..........173
Figure 253: MR-X1 ................173
Figure 254: Nereus (AUV mode) and LED array ............174
Figure 255: Nereus manipulator and deployment (ROV mode) ........174
Figure 256: Odyssey IV on a public relations mission ........174
Figure 257: R-One Robot .............175
Figure 258: R2D4 ............175
Figure 259: Ranger ...............175
Figure 260: Rauver Mk 2 ........176
Figure 261: Redermor 2 .........176
Figure 262: ONR REMUS 100 thruster modules .............177
Figure 263: REMUS 100 ............177
Figure 264: REMUS 100 with external turbulence measurement sensors .......177
Figure 265: REMUS 600 Standard Configuration ........178
Figure 266: REMUS 600 (with SAS, extra battery packs and fin modules) .....178
Figure 267: SAMS / REMUS 6000 ..........179
Figure 268: RHyVAU Contueor ............179
Figure 269: RMS/RMV ...........180
Figure 270: RMMV components ........180
Figure 271: ASQ-20 towed MCM system ...........180
Figure 272: SAILARS .........181
Figure 273: SARA AUV ............181
Figure 274: SAUV Mark 2 ..........182
Figure 275: SAUVIM ......182
Figure 276: Seabed .........183
Figure 277: SeaHorse.........183
Figure 278: SeaOtter Mark 2 ........184
Figure 279: SeaWolf A variant ..........184
Figure 280: Sentry AUV meets the Alvin manned submersible ..........185
Figure 281: SWIMMER operational concept ...........185
Figure 282: The SWIMMER ROV component ............186
Figure 283: Talisman M ............186
Figure 284: Talisman L ..............187
Figure 285: Tantan ..........187
Figure 286: Tri-dog 1 ..............187
Figure 287: Tuvaaq...............188
Figure 288: Xray/Liberade Glider prototype ............189
Figure 289: SeaExplorer ..........189
Figure 290: SeaGlider.................190
Figure 291: Slocum Glider ............190
Figure 292: Spray Glider .............191
Figure 293: Archerfish after deployment from launching cradle ........... 191
Figure 294: K-Ster ...............192
Figure 295: Minesniper ................192
Figure 296: SeaFox ..............193
Figure 297: Transphibian ...............193

Tables
Table 1: Most Likely (Units & Values) .............17
Table 2: Most Likely (Values) ..............18
Table 3: Summary of IHO S-44 Minimum Standards ...........40
Table 4: Summary of IMCA S-003 Minimum Standards ............48
Table 5: Comparison of Underwater Modem Systems ...........90
Table 6: Power Sources for Deepwater AUVs ................104
Table 7: World AUV Population by Models and Units Built ...........121
Table 8: World AUV Population by Units & Application ...........122
Table 9: Applications of the 36 Models of Military AUVs..........122
Table 10: World AUV Fleet by Manufacturer ..........123
Table 11: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units by Size) ..........125
Table 12: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units by Size) .........126
Table 13: Oil & Gas – Pipeline Inspection (Units by Size).........127
Table 14: Hydrographic Survey (Units by Size) ..........128
Table 15: Research (Units by Size) ........129
Table 16: Hydrographic Survey (Units by Size) ..........130
Table 17: Miitary (Units by Size) ...........131
Table 18: Total AUVs (Units by Region) ................132
Table 19: Total AUVs (Units by Market Sector) ............132
Table 20: Summary Table of AUV actively used or under development for Survey,
Inspection and Research ...........136
Table 21: Summary Table of AUV actively used by military organizations or developers ......137
Table 22: Summary Table of ASW Training Targets .........139
Table 23: Summary Table of Gliding AUV ............139
Table 24: Summary Table of Expendable Mine Destructor Vehicles (EMDV) ......139

2 An Introduction to Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

Requirements – there are now AUVs that are capable of hovering and so have thrusters
that provide vertical as well as horizontal motion control. Some AUVs have multiple hulls
for maximum stability and are used as camera platforms, some have no thrusters at all
and travel forwards using a gliding motion and others have propulsion systems based on
biological mechanisms such as eels, snakes and manta-rays (bio-mimetic systems).

In order to present the most streamlined design, sensors used on AUVs are normally
integrated into the body of the vehicle. This requires a high degree of co-operation at the
design stage between sensor and vehicle developers. Some AUVs utilise a modular
approach that allows for some variation of sensor payload and battery capacity between
successive dives and this approach can also assist in the systems design process.
However, there are no modular systems currently available that would add hover
functionality.

2.3 AUV Rationale
AUVs use can be justified for specific projects in a number of ways related to access,
safety, data quality and survey costs. Benefits include:
• Operation in deep, shallow and restricted waters where vessels may not be
allowed, dependant on the depth rating of their systems.
• Deployment can be from the shore or a minimally equipped, low-cost vessel
that is then free for other work.
• The range of an AUV is limited by its power supply, not by the length of an
umbilical.
• There can be multiple AUVs used from the same vessel at the same time, all
communicating between themselves or via the host vessel. They can share
tasks and information, making decisions based on each others progress, power
consumption or operational faults.
• Vessel requirements are reduced for deep-water operations – a deep-tow cable
or ROV umbilical and their associated handling gear impose a minimum size
constraint on a ship as compared to an AUV. The smallest deep-ocean AUV in
development can be operated from virtually any seaworthy vessel. ROVs are
typically operated from vessels equipped with Dynamic Positioning (DP)
systems – AUVs do not require this.
• Topside control/operations equipment is greatly reduced in comparison with
ROVs – a laptop computer may be all that is required to programme the vehicle
and to down-load survey results on its return.
• AUVs do not require a number of highly skilled operators to control and monitor
their movements and the data they collect. In the case of pipeline inspection or
surveys, (a task normally accomplished by an operator flying an ROV over a
pipeline and observing video images and corrosion data), the AUV can
manoeuvre itself in relation to the pipeline, maintain distances and a position to
provide optimum geometry for the sensors and perform inspection routines in
response to anomalous events or objects being detected.
• De-risking MCM missions, both in terms of removing the need for divers to
dispose of moored or buried mines and in operating well ahead or to the side of
a vessel performing a mine detection operation.
• De-risking ASW missions by acting as a sensor platform remote and distant
from manned vessels.
• Increase data quality by providing a stable platform free from the effects of
waves and weather. Apart from launch and recovery, AUV operation is
independent of surface wind and wave conditions – an ROV normally operates
from a DP vessel that may use a heave-compensated winch to minimise the
effect of surface motion on the ROV. The independence of the AUV can lead to
a reduction in weather/vessel motion-induced data problems.
• Increase data quality by optimising the altitude of the vehicle for the sensors
without a towed sensor platform.
• De-risking survey operations – in a deep-tow survey operation the altitude of
the platform is controlled by winch tension and the platform is often very slow to
respond to commands related to the imminence of an undersea ridge or
change in gradient that can cause either an impact. The AUV can react to
obstacles and changes in bottom topography and maintain optimal altitude both
up and down slope.
• Improved survey speeds – typical surface vessel survey deep-tow tow speeds
are limited by the drag from the cable to the order of 1 or 2 knots, as compared
to AUV speeds of typically between 3 and 4 knots.
• Vessel turns between adjacent survey lines is a highly costly procedure for a
deep-tow system, requiring several kilometres for sleds and towfish as
compared to turn radii for AUVs that can be less than 10 metres. A survey in
deep water (3,000m) that requires a towfish to be flown 200m above the
seabed may require a cable length from the vessel of the towfish of 5,000m or
more. To turn from one survey line to another the vessel may take 2 or more
hours to get the towfish in the line start position – depending on speed. Line
run-ins are also added in excess of the required line distance to give the towfish
and cable time to settle back to depth and be stable on the line. If the towfish is
too high, or not within the contractually allowed corridor each side of the survey
line, the turn may have to be repeated.

3 AUV Applications

3.1 Overview
In discussing applications for AUVs, it is sometime useful to think of the vehicle as a
platform to which sensors are attached. It is the combination of these sensors and the
physical capabilities of the vehicle (depth rating, speed, endurance, hovering) that will
determine the applications to which it can be put. The vast majority of AUVs are
designed to meet the needs of a single or small group of applications, as this is often
more successful than attempting to develop a system that can meet a multitude of
applications as compromises are inevitable. Some AUVs are available purely as a base
unit with a control system that is open source and configurable by the user to suit their
needs. Others can be supplied with an empty module (but with power and data
connections) that allows the user to fit their own sensor(s) to the main vehicle. AUV
suppliers are normally highly capable and flexible, and are often keen to explore new
potential applications for their vehicles. However, early contact is often advisable,
especially if there is a need to integrate a new sensor or system.

AUV applications are generally grouped into those related to the commercial, military
and research sectors, but the same vehicle can normally be used for more than one
application and in more than one sector. At the time of writing, the commercial sector
appears to require a small number of high value vehicles, the military requires a large
number of vehicles at the very high to mid value range, and the research sector uses a
small number of high value vehicles and a large number of mid and low value vehicles.
Possible application groupings include :

Commercial
• Light Intervention
• Pipeline and Structure Inspection
• Survey and Seabed Mapping

Military
• Anti Submarine Warfare
• Mine Counter Measures
• Rapid Environmental Assessment
• Rescue and Recovery
• Security & Surveillance

Research
• Geophysical and oceanographic studies
• Biological and ecological studies
• Environmental Mapping and Surveillance

In the commercial sector, survey and seabed mapping is the primary application of
AUVs to date, with a number of major survey contractors having fleets of typically deepwater
(>1,000m), torpedo-shaped AUVs providing data for oil and gas clients as well as
national hydrographic departments. Shallow water survey is also undertaken by AUVs
(with depth ratings between 500 and 1,000m) in the commercial sector, and this is of
relevance to a large proportion of the oil and gas real-estate in the Gulf of Mexico, North
Sea and elsewhere.

AUVs are used to survey the routes of potential pipelines and cable-routes, but the
inspection of existing cables and pipelines has been conducted by only a few vehicles
on a test-bed/proving basis. Once various gaps in the technology are successfully filled,
pipeline and subsea inspection will be a major AUV application, and this has been
recognised by major industry players such as Total, BP and Chevron. Notable pipeline
and cable inspection trials include:

• Aqua Explorer-2 [Cable inspection, Taiwan Strait, 1999]
• Alistar 3000 [Flowline inspection, BP King Field, Gulf of Mexico, 2006],
• Geosub [Pipeline inspection with AutoTracker, Scapa Flow 2005, and BP,
Clair Field, West of Shetland, 2006]

8,000km of pipelines including the 1,160km Langeled pipeline.8 A number of other large
pipeline projects are planned or underway in the region including the 1,220km Nord
Stream pipeline through the Baltic Sea, the 80km Baltic Connector and the 260km Baltic
Pipe. The Gulf of Mexico has over 22,500km of oil and gas pipelines.

In waters that are inaccessible to surface vessels due to depth or access, AUVs offer an
effective means of gathering pipeline inspection data, far beyond the physical range of
divers operating from the beach. A number of small AUVs (including the LIRMM TAIPAN
2, the Oceanscan-MST LAUV, the Hafmynd Gavia, the Hydroid REMUS 100 and others)
have been proposed for such projects, and the Gavia was trialled in the shallow waters
of the Caspian Sea in 2009 where it conducted inspections from the beach towards the
12m depth contour on multiple adjacent pipes. It should also be noted that small vesselbased
surveys often require a great deal of onshore processing and interpretation of the
data collected during the operations as the size and motion of the vessels preclude all
but basic quality control during data acquisition – just as would be the case if an AUV
were to acquire the data, but if the AUV were able to surface occasionally and relay
some of its data to shore via non-acoustic communications, processing and
interpretation could start much earlier.

It is perhaps in deep-water pipeline inspection tasks that AUVs have major advantages
over work-class ROVs. The primary one is that there are no operational penalties
incurred due to the long and heavy umbilicals required for deep-water ROV operations.
With increasing water depths, the impact of the umbilical weight becomes more
significant. Increasing the number of load bearing elements and buoyancy in the
umbilical can lead to heat dissipation and physical handling issues related to the weight
of the umbilical and the subsequent size and capacities of the topside winch. Other
advantages include a reduction in overall operation time and also in personnel
requirements.

A great deal of research has been undertaken into equipping AUVs (and smart ROVs)
with software that can distinguish and track a linear feature based on input from cameras
and other sensors, and to maintain the vehicle at the optimum offset distance from the
pipeline. In September 2004, a field trial of the AutoTracker system using the Geosub
AUV, designed to track and survey exposed and buried seabed pipelines. It was
developed by a consortium of partners including research laboratories based at Heriot
Watt University (Edinburgh), the National Technical University of Athens, and the
University of the Balearic Islands, together with Innovatum who supplied their magneticbased
pipetracker system and industrial partners BP and Alcatel Submarine Networks.

Under-Ice Research

Manned submersibles and AUVs offer unparalleled access for under-ice research when
compared with surface vessels and ROV deployments from vessels or through holes cut
in the ice. Manned submarine-based research started at the North Pole in 1930 when Sir
Hubert Wilkins acquired the submarine O-12 (subsequently renamed the Nautilus) from
the US Navy. Measurements were to be made by oceanographic pioneer Harald
Sverdrup from a specially rigged diving compartment. Due to mechanical issues the
submarine was limited to short runs at the edge of the ice pack. From 1946, the US
Navy conducted submarine operations under ice, with nuclear submarines crossing the
Arctic in 1958, and surfacing at the North Pole in 1959.

Numerous military submarines crossed the Arctic under the ice during the Cold War
years, and subsequent to the collapse of the former USSR, a co-operative
military/scientific programme was established to allow nuclear-powered submarines to
act as data gathering platforms. Six cruises were conducted during 1992-1999 called
Science Ice Exercises (SCICEXs) and although the Navy provided the submarine and
crew, the science community directed the track of the submarine (within limits in safety).
The torpedo room was adapted as a laboratory. As many as six civilian scientists were
aboard for each cruise. Of critical importance was the fact that at the conclusion of each
cruise, the data collected was declassified and released, often through the National
Science Foundation. During the six dedicated cruises, data was collected over 95,000
km of track during 211 days. Science participants came from several nations including
Canada, the United Kingdom, Russia and the U.S. The data collected ranged from the
physical and biological properties of the ocean to bathymetry and data on the
composition and structure of the ocean subbottom. Much of the bathymetry and seabed
data was destined for use in the US territorial claims under UNCLOS.

A number of AUVs have already been used for under-ice research, either investigating
the underside of the ice itself or the biological communities present. The Scottish
Fisheries Research Service trialled an SBES (Simrad EK-500, 38 and 120kHz) on the
Autosub-1 AUV in 1999 to investigate the distribution, abundance and behaviour of
Antarctic krill in the marginal ice zone, and to assess the potential for the use of AUVs in
the acoustic assessment of fish stock. As transducers were mounted on both the dorsal
(120 kHz) and ventral (38 kHz) surfaces of the AUV, a composite echogram, displaying
the whole water column including the sea surface, was obtained. This was the first time
that such data were collected unhindered by an umbilical or the effect of a towing
support vessel. A similar experiment was conducted in the Southern Ocean on Antarctic
krill using Autosub-2 and the RRS James Clark Ross. The USIPS project undertook
deployments of the Autosub-2 AUV under Antarctic ice, providing the first continuous
line-transect acoustic surveys of krill in the under-ice habitat. Krill density was found to
be elevated under ice and krill per se to be concentrated in a narrow band just inside the
ice-covered zone. There are some vehicles (such as Tuvaaq) that have been specifically
designed to be lowered and retrieved from small diameter holes in the ice – a
conventional AUV torpedo shape requires a much larger opening.

Using an AUV under ice is not without risk and vehicles have been lost (such as the
2005 loss of Autosub in the Antarctic) but the data collected has often been of great
scientific importance. Future AUV missions may well make use of the TILACSys
through-ice communications and location system currently under development by
Wireless Fibre Systems and Kongsberg. The TILACSys will enable a surface vessel, a
helicopter or even an unmanned aerial vehicle to locate and communicate with the AUV
through the ice, thus enabling commands to be sent that may assist in the recovery of
the vehicle.

Acoustic Modems

Modems provide the link between a computer sending or receiving information and the
transmission medium used whether this is copper wire, fibre-optic cable, air or seawater.
The electronics in the modem processes the information to be transmitted into an
optimized form that allows for ease of transmission, and maximizes the chance that it will
be received and understood by the receiving modem. This process includes the
construction of discreet packets of data. The modem’s electronics pass the data packets
to the transmission hardware which will obviously be chosen to suit the transmission
medium.
Acoustic energy travels at around 1,500 m/s in seawater (compared to around 340 m/s
in air), and is generated by the modem passing an electrical signal through a piezoelectric
crystal which then oscillates (vibrates) with a frequency that varies with that of
the electrical signal. The vibrations of the crystal are used to mechanically drive a plate
that is in contact with seawater and the energy from the vibrations are transferred to the
water. This mechanism is known as the transducer. The majority of acoustic modems
operate between 5,000 and 30,000 oscillations per second or Hertz (Hz). This range is
similar to the range of frequencies detectable by the human ear (hence the term
acoustics).

In order to maximize the range of an acoustic modem, it is possible to use a directional
transducer that focuses the energy along a particular axis and if such a system is used,
the receiving transducer must be close to the axis of the transmitting transducer.
(However, a cone is formed, even with directional transducers, which allows for some
offset.) The receiving transducer converts the incoming pressure variations/vibrations
into electrical impulses by a direct reversal of the piezo-electric process, the receiving
modem then converts the electrical signal into data packets and then to useable data.

Disclaimer
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The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate, but no representation
or warranty, express or implied, is made by the publisher as to the completeness, accuracy
or fairness of any information contained in it and we do not accept any responsibility in
relation to such information whether fact, opinion or conclusion that the reader may draw.
The views expressed are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent
those of the publishers.

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The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016
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Equipment ID   : 913
Equipment name   : The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016
Category   : Research Reports
Specifications   : Name of the Report :
The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016

Contents

1 Executive Summary ......15
1.1 Introduction .......16
1.2 The Market......17
1.3 A Growing Aceptance .........18

2 Introduction ........21
2.1 Unmanned vehicles ........22
2.2 Unmanned vehicles in the marine sector ......23
2.3 AUV Rationale ........25
2.4 What are the alternatives to using AUV?.........26
2.5 AUV Types.............30
2.6 Significant Points in AUV History .........34

3 AUV Applications .........37
3.1 Overview ...........38
3.2 Commercial Survey .......40
3.3 Light Intervention .........53
3.4 Inspection..........55
3.5 Military Applications .........58
3.6 Research Applications ..........73

4 AUV Technology ........83
4.1 Introduction ..........84
4.2 Autonomy and Control ..........85
4.3 Communications .........89
4.4 Hull Shape, materials and buoyancy ...........93
4.5 Launch and recovery systems .........97
4.6 Navigation and Positioning .........98
4.7 Power .........103
4.8 Propulsion and Manoeuvring ........107
4.9 AUV Sensors .........108

5 Market Forecasts .......117
5.1 AUV market drivers .........118
5.2 The existing AUV fleet .........121
5.3 The model – a scenario approach .........124
5.4 Oil & Gas Sector Forecasts – Deepwater Survey (Units) .........125
5.5 Oil & Gas Sector Forecasts – Deepwater Fields (Units) .......126
5.6 Oil & Gas Sector Forecasts – Pipeline Inspection (Units) .......127
5.7 Hydrographic (Units) .........128
5.8 Research (Units) ...........129
5.9 Submarine Cables (Units)........130
5.10 Military (Units) ........131
5.11 Totals (Units) ..........132
5.12 Totals (Units & Values) ..........133

6 Appendices ........135
6.1 Summary Tables ........136
6.2 AUV Developers & Manufacturers ........140
6.3 Academic Developers and Operators .......144
6.4 Operators .........147
6.5 Technology Providers .........148
6.6 AUVs ...........151
6.7 Gliding AUV .........189
6.8 MCM vehicles with an FO link .........191
6.9 AUV and USV programs in the US military .........194

Figures
Figure 1: Most Likely (Units) ...........17
Figure 2: Most Likely (Value) .........17
Figure 3: Big Dog ..........22
Figure 4: Dragon Runner ...........22
Figure 5: MQ-9 Reaper UAV ........22
Figure 6: Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Family Tree ........23
Figure 7: Protector USV .........24
Figure 8: Dorado/SeaKeeper USSV ..........24
Figure 9: Deep Flight 1..........26
Figure 10: Commercial Diver .........26
Figure 11: The original JIM atmospheric diving suit .........26
Figure 12: Hydro Products RCV225 and RCV125 (1980) ........27
Figure 13: Serpent Internal Pipeline Inspection ROV ........27
Figure 14: The Fugro Discovery offshore survey vessel .....28
Figure 15: Hull mounted SBP profiler .......28
Figure 16: Tees Navigator .......28
Figure 17: SM-30 Sonar mapping System .........28
Figure 18: AUV running a typical survey line pattern ...........29
Figure 19: Airborne laser mapping System ......29
Figure 20: MH-53E Sea Dragon helicopter towing a magentic influence sled.........30
Figure 21: Slocum Glider ..........30
Figure 22: Slocum Glider .........30
Figure 23: The Autonomous Inspection Vehicle (prototype) ........31
Figure 24: Screenshot of the VisualWorks inspection data integration software ......32
Figure 25: ALIVE AUV Approaching Wellhead .........32
Figure 26: Research vessel Polarstern ..........34
Figure 27: SPURV 1 ........34
Figure 28: Submarine deployed, weaponised Manta AUV – the future? ........35
Figure 29: Artists impression of an Inspection AUV ..........38
Figure 30: SAUVIM Intervention AUV ..........39
Figure 31: SeaBED AUV on an Archeological dive in the Aegean Sea .......39
Figure 32: Unmanned Semi-Submersible survey vehicle...........41
Figure 33: SMB Nesbitt of the Royal Navy Hydrographic fleet .......42
Figure 34: Dorado USSV on trial with the Canadian Navy ..........42
Figure 35: Jetswath survey vehicle ...........43
Figure 36: Modules on the Gavia Offshore Surveyor AUV ..........44
Figure 37: Harbour and dredged channel bathymetry data collected by the Gavia
Offshore Surveyor .......... 44
Figure 38: The working end of a cutter-suction dredger ...........45
Figure 39: Example screenshot of the MakaiPlan GIS ........46
Figure 40: Telecommunications cables in the Mediterranean ........47
Figure 41: Aqua Explorer 2000 AUV used for cable route surveys ......47
Figure 42: Catenary and Taut-Leg Mooring arrangements .......48
Figure 43: The Maersk Inspirer jack-up platform underway to the Volve Field .......49
Figure 44: Lunar Energy/Rotech Tidal Turbine farm ..........49
Figure 45: The Hywind floating offshore wind turbine being installed in 2009 .......49
Figure 46: The Peace in Africa diamond mining vessel .........51
Figure 47: The DBM Geosurvey M600 AUV ........51
Figure 48: Gas Hydrate Observatory .........52
Figure 49: Recovery of the Eagle Ray AUV ...........53
Figure 50: Nodules off New Zealand ......53
Figure 51: OKPO-6000 .........53
Figure 52: Swimmer AUV ........54
Figure 53: Subsea Christmas Tree valve assembly .............54
Figure 54: Planned layout of the Reliance field, offshore India ......54
Figure 55: MacArtney Focus 2 ROTV ........55
Figure 56: Inspection ROV with Xplisit camera system (inset) .......55
Figure 57: Major Pipelines in the North Sea ........56
Figure 58: Geosub .........56
Figure 59: Alistar 3000 tracking pipeline during trials in 2004 .....56
Figure 60: The Seawolf-A Inspection AUV ............57
Figure 61: The prototype Autonomous Inspection Vehicle ......57
Figure 62: ROV view of tracking a moving riser during trials ........58
Figure 63: Different pipelay methods .............58
Figure 64: U212 AIP submarine .........59
Figure 65: SLITA array and the Ocean Explorer AUV in 2008 .......60
Figure 66: Liberdade/XRay Glider ........60
Figure 67: Submarine deployed PLUSNet modules .........61
Figure 68: Influence seabed mines (blue) and a floating contact mine (black) discovered
on an Iraqi vessel in 200 .......61
Figure 69: The Saab AUV62 ......62
Figure 70: Remote Multi Mission Vehicle with SSS Towfish ........62
Figure 71: ASV 6000 SASS Q (ASV)........63
Figure 72: Dorado (DDRC-Canada) ..........63
Figure 73: Transphibian AUV ..........63
Figure 74: REMUS 100 .........63
Figure 75: Seafox EMDV .............64
Figure 76: Stanflex 100 USV with MCM SSS towfish (yellow) ......64
Figure 77: AUV CTD card .........65
Figure 78: Hydrographic chart for the 1944 D-Day beach landings .........66
Figure 79: Daurade AUV ...........66
Figure 80: Bushell’s Turtle .........67
Figure 81: British X-Craft midget submarine ........67
Figure 82: Italian manned torpedo ........67
Figure 83: X-class USV ..........67
Figure 84: Sea Owl Mk 2 USV .........67
Figure 85: Hovering AUV (showing thrusters, DVL and camera system) .......68
Figure 86: Dry-deck shelter ..........69
Figure 87: Saab SUBROV ........70
Figure 88: SeaOwl 500 .........70
Figure 89: The Kamen K-Max helicopter.........70
Figure 90: Lockheed Martin Mule UGV .........70
Figure 91: ASV SASS-Q ........71
Figure 92: ASV-9500.........71
Figure 93: X-3 .......71
Figure 94: Drug-running submarine captured by the Columbian Navy .......71
Figure 95: REMUS 100 fitted with an extandable surveillance camera .......71
Figure 96: The Running Gear Entanglement System ..........72
Figure 97: MK 30 Mod 2 ASW target (helicopter recovery) .......72
Figure 98: The winning team (Heriot-Watt University) at SAUC-E 2009 ........73
Figure 99: T and S data gathered by a Gliding AUV off Newfoundland in 2006......74
Figure 100: Data density gathered by gliding AUV (left) vs surface vessel .....74
Figure 101: Microstructure sensor on the SAMS REMUS 600 AUV ......75
Figure 102: Upwelling ...........76
Figure 103: Glider deployment ...........76
Figure 104: The two modes of the NEREUS AUV .......76
Figure 105: Summary of UNCLOS definitions .........77
Figure 106: Tuvaaq AUV..........78
Figure 107: Odyssey AUV (Lake Winnepasauke, New Hampshire) ........78
Figure 108: Wally the seabed crawler in test .........79
Figure 109: Fisheries echogram gathered by a HUGIN AUV .......80
Figure 110: Hydroid REMUS 100 AUV schematic ........84
Figure 111: MIT Odyssey IV AUV schematic (plan view) .........84
Figure 112: Marport SQX-1 AUV schematic ...........85
Figure 113: Control system hardware (without pressure casing) ...........85
Figure 114: AUV control processes and behaviours ..........86
Figure 115: A stuck REMUS 600 and a manipulator equipped LBV150 ROV ......86
Figure 116: VectorMap Screenshots showing image overlays ........87
Figure 117: SeeByte SeeTrack Military CAD/CAC module (integrated into the AUV) .... 88
Figure 118: SeeTrack Military screenshot showing MCM line plan and pre-acquired SSS
imagery .........88
Figure 119: Kongsberg Hugin operation and navigation screens ........89
Figure 120: Hydroid VIP screenshot .........89
Figure 121: Teledyne Benthos Acoustic Modem ........91
Figure 122: Wireless Fibre Systems SeaTooth modem.......91
Figure 123: The TILAC through-ice radio system concept .......92
Figure 124: Doppler shift as seen from Argos satellites........93
Figure 125: Sonobuoy launch tubes on a P-3 Orion marine patrol aircraft .......93
Figure 126: Seahorse AUV ..........93
Figure 127: Deep-C AUV ..........94
Figure 128: Autonomous Benthic Explorer ........94
Figure 129: Glass pressure sphere placement in the Kermonaut AUV .......94
Figure 130: Iver2 AUV ...........94
Figure 131: The nose section and interior components of a REMUS .....95
Figure 132: Titanium blanks prior to machining for the REMUS 3000 .....95
Figure 133: Forward section of the Autosub 6000 AUV .......95
Figure 134: Nereus AUV showing some of its 1,600 ceramic buoyancy spheres ......96
Figure 135: SMA actuator deformed (left) and returned to its original shape (right) ....96
Figure 136: Deployment of a Hugin 1000MR from a Norwegian naval vessel ......97
Figure 137: LARS options for the REMUS 6000 (left) and 600 (right) ........97
Figure 138: Launch and Recovery cradle for an Iver2 .........98
Figure 139: Eurodocker .......98
Figure 140: Iver2 (EcoMapper variant) ........98
Figure 141: T24 Ring laser gyro INS ......99
Figure 142: PHINS 6000 INS ............99
Figure 143: Sea Devil DVL & INS ...........99
Figure 144: NavQuest 600 Micro DVL .........99
Figure 145: HAUV performing a vertical slice hull inspection ........100
Figure 146: Remus Gateway Buoy ..........101
Figure 147: GIB-Plus Buoys ........101
Figure 148: Micron USBL (500m range) .......102
Figure 149: HIPAP USBL (5000m range) .........102
Figure 150: IUSBL transducer (left) and beacon (right) .....102
Figure 151: NASNet VRx unit (left) and Station (right)............103
Figure 152: Mini Intelligent Pressure Sensor .........103
Figure 153: Autosub 6000 battery box containing lithium-polymer cells ....104
Figure 154: Odessey IV Battery Pack (out of pressure sphere) .......104
Figure 155: Mesa Systems CAN120 12V inductive power transfer system .....105
Figure 156: SAUV II ........... 106
Figure 157: AE1 Diesel engine ...........107
Figure 158: 370B Diesel Engine (370 HP) .......107
Figure 159: IntegratedThruster (rim drive) .......107
Figure 160: Bionik Manta in tank tests .......108
Figure 161: Dual port camera system on a Iver2 AUV ........109
Figure 162: Imagery of Amphora collected using the Seabed AUV ......109
Figure 163: 3-Axis RS232 digital compass, less than 3cm per side ........110
Figure 164 SM2000 Imaging Sonar .......110
Figure 165 7128 Imaging Sonar .........110
Figure 166 Blueview DF900-2250 ..........110
Figure 167 DIDSON ..........110
Figure 168: Imagery from a Tritech Super SeaKing OAS ......111
Figure 169: SeaKing SS hardware and imagery ......112
Figure 170: The muscle AUV with acoustically transparent panels ......112
Figure 171: Real-time SAS SSS processing screens ......112
Figure 172: Sub-bottom profiler data (24kHz) .........113
Figure 173: 3D CHIRP SBP on an Atlas SeaOtter AUV .........113
Figure 174: 50m penetration AUV SBP...........113
Figure 175: Reson 7125 200/400kHz SBS (top left) on a Saab Double Eagle AUV .... 114
Figure 176: SBS bathymetry from SRDUK / Tritech .........114
Figure 177: Data acquisition screenshot for Atlas Fansweep 30 SBS (200/400kHz) ... 114
Figure 178: HUGIN 3000 with Kongsberg SBS .........115
Figure 179: GeoSwath-Plus transducers on a REMUS 100........115
Figure 180: AquaExplorer 2000 ..........116
Figure 181: World Offshore Oil & Gas Expenditure ........119
Figure 182: World Deepwater Oil & Gas Expenditure .......120
Figure 183: World AUV Population by Size & Application ........121
Figure 184: World AUV Population – Numbers Built by Water Depth .......122
Figure 185: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units) ........125
Figure 186: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units) .......126
Figure 187: Oil & Gas – Pipeline Inspection (Units) ........127
Figure 188: Oil & Gas – Pipeline Inspection (Units) .......128
Figure 189: Research (Units) ............129
Figure 190: Submarine Cables (Units) ..........130
Figure 191: Military (Units) ......131
Figure 192: Low Case (Units by Market Sector) ..........133
Figure 193: Most Likely (Units by Market Sector) ........133
Figure 194: Most Likely (Units by Market Sector) .........134
Figure 195: 475 AUV .............151
Figure 196: Autonomous Benthic Explorer ..........151
Figure 197: ALISTAR 3000 AUV .............152
Figure 198: ALISTER AUV (shore launch) ...........152
Figure 199: ALIVE .........153
Figure 200: APOGEE ..........153
Figure 201: Aqua Explorer 1000 .........154
Figure 202: Aqua Explorer 2 (AE-2) .........154
Figure 203: Aqua Explorer 2000 ...........154
Figure 204: Theseus (right), ARCS (centre), Explorer (left) ......154
Figure 205: ARIES .............155
Figure 206: Testing the SASS 6m Mk 2.........155
Figure 207: Prototype AIV trials and concept ............156
Figure 208: AUSS ............156
Figure 209: Images from AUSS .............156
Figure 210: ASM-X Demonstrator ...........157
Figure 211: CL1 Target AUV .........157
Figure 212: Autosub-1 .........157
Figure 213: Autosub 2 .........157
Figure 214: Autosub 6000 .........158
Figure 215: AUV62 (Sapphire) ..........158
Figure 216: AUV 62 Submarine Training Target ..........158
Figure 217: Bluefin-9 ...........159
Figure 218: Bluefin 12.......159
Figure 219: Bluefin-21 BPAUV on the LCS and during deployment .......160
Figure 220: Echo Mapper 2 ...........160
Figure 221: SSS (left) and SBS (right) data collected by the Echo Mapper ......160
Figure 222: CETUS-1 (left), and CETUS-2 (right) .......161
Figure 223: Cormoran........161
Figure 224: CR-02 under test in 2006.......161
Figure 225: C-Scout...........162
Figure 226: DeepC .........162
Figure 227: DepthX (ENDURANCE variant) .........163
Figure 228: Dorado .........163
Figure 229: Docking variant ..........163
Figure 230: Dorado ............164
Figure 231: Double Eagle Mark 3 SAROV with PROSAS .........164
Figure 232: Echo Ranger (LDUUV) ..........165
Figure 233: Extendable mast ......165
Figure 234: AsterX .............165
Figure 235: Fetch 3.5 .........166
Figure 236: NNEMO 1.........166
Figure 237: FOLAGA .......166
Figure 238: Gavia .......167
Figure 239: Geosub ...........167
Figure 240: Bluefin HAUV .........168
Figure 241: HUGIN 1000 on the aft deck of the Karmy MCM vessel ........168
Figure 242: HUGIN aluminium/oxygen fuel cell battery .......169
Figure 243: Infante .............169
Figure 244: Iver2 ...........170
Figure 245: Light AUV ..........170
Figure 246: LMRS Launch & Recovery Trials ........171
Figure 247: MACO (left) and Manta (right) ..........171
Figure 248: Marine Bird...........172
Figure 249: Marum MOVE .......172
Figure 250: MARV ...............172
Figure 251: MAUVE ..........172
Figure 252: MRUUV ..........173
Figure 253: MR-X1 ................173
Figure 254: Nereus (AUV mode) and LED array ............174
Figure 255: Nereus manipulator and deployment (ROV mode) ........174
Figure 256: Odyssey IV on a public relations mission ........174
Figure 257: R-One Robot .............175
Figure 258: R2D4 ............175
Figure 259: Ranger ...............175
Figure 260: Rauver Mk 2 ........176
Figure 261: Redermor 2 .........176
Figure 262: ONR REMUS 100 thruster modules .............177
Figure 263: REMUS 100 ............177
Figure 264: REMUS 100 with external turbulence measurement sensors .......177
Figure 265: REMUS 600 Standard Configuration ........178
Figure 266: REMUS 600 (with SAS, extra battery packs and fin modules) .....178
Figure 267: SAMS / REMUS 6000 ..........179
Figure 268: RHyVAU Contueor ............179
Figure 269: RMS/RMV ...........180
Figure 270: RMMV components ........180
Figure 271: ASQ-20 towed MCM system ...........180
Figure 272: SAILARS .........181
Figure 273: SARA AUV ............181
Figure 274: SAUV Mark 2 ..........182
Figure 275: SAUVIM ......182
Figure 276: Seabed .........183
Figure 277: SeaHorse.........183
Figure 278: SeaOtter Mark 2 ........184
Figure 279: SeaWolf A variant ..........184
Figure 280: Sentry AUV meets the Alvin manned submersible ..........185
Figure 281: SWIMMER operational concept ...........185
Figure 282: The SWIMMER ROV component ............186
Figure 283: Talisman M ............186
Figure 284: Talisman L ..............187
Figure 285: Tantan ..........187
Figure 286: Tri-dog 1 ..............187
Figure 287: Tuvaaq...............188
Figure 288: Xray/Liberade Glider prototype ............189
Figure 289: SeaExplorer ..........189
Figure 290: SeaGlider.................190
Figure 291: Slocum Glider ............190
Figure 292: Spray Glider .............191
Figure 293: Archerfish after deployment from launching cradle ........... 191
Figure 294: K-Ster ...............192
Figure 295: Minesniper ................192
Figure 296: SeaFox ..............193
Figure 297: Transphibian ...............193

Tables
Table 1: Most Likely (Units & Values) .............17
Table 2: Most Likely (Values) ..............18
Table 3: Summary of IHO S-44 Minimum Standards ...........40
Table 4: Summary of IMCA S-003 Minimum Standards ............48
Table 5: Comparison of Underwater Modem Systems ...........90
Table 6: Power Sources for Deepwater AUVs ................104
Table 7: World AUV Population by Models and Units Built ...........121
Table 8: World AUV Population by Units & Application ...........122
Table 9: Applications of the 36 Models of Military AUVs..........122
Table 10: World AUV Fleet by Manufacturer ..........123
Table 11: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units by Size) ..........125
Table 12: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units by Size) .........126
Table 13: Oil & Gas – Pipeline Inspection (Units by Size).........127
Table 14: Hydrographic Survey (Units by Size) ..........128
Table 15: Research (Units by Size) ........129
Table 16: Hydrographic Survey (Units by Size) ..........130
Table 17: Miitary (Units by Size) ...........131
Table 18: Total AUVs (Units by Region) ................132
Table 19: Total AUVs (Units by Market Sector) ............132
Table 20: Summary Table of AUV actively used or under development for Survey,
Inspection and Research ...........136
Table 21: Summary Table of AUV actively used by military organizations or developers ......137
Table 22: Summary Table of ASW Training Targets .........139
Table 23: Summary Table of Gliding AUV ............139
Table 24: Summary Table of Expendable Mine Destructor Vehicles (EMDV) ......139

2 An Introduction to Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

Requirements – there are now AUVs that are capable of hovering and so have thrusters
that provide vertical as well as horizontal motion control. Some AUVs have multiple hulls
for maximum stability and are used as camera platforms, some have no thrusters at all
and travel forwards using a gliding motion and others have propulsion systems based on
biological mechanisms such as eels, snakes and manta-rays (bio-mimetic systems).

In order to present the most streamlined design, sensors used on AUVs are normally
integrated into the body of the vehicle. This requires a high degree of co-operation at the
design stage between sensor and vehicle developers. Some AUVs utilise a modular
approach that allows for some variation of sensor payload and battery capacity between
successive dives and this approach can also assist in the systems design process.
However, there are no modular systems currently available that would add hover
functionality.

2.3 AUV Rationale
AUVs use can be justified for specific projects in a number of ways related to access,
safety, data quality and survey costs. Benefits include:
• Operation in deep, shallow and restricted waters where vessels may not be
allowed, dependant on the depth rating of their systems.
• Deployment can be from the shore or a minimally equipped, low-cost vessel
that is then free for other work.
• The range of an AUV is limited by its power supply, not by the length of an
umbilical.
• There can be multiple AUVs used from the same vessel at the same time, all
communicating between themselves or via the host vessel. They can share
tasks and information, making decisions based on each others progress, power
consumption or operational faults.
• Vessel requirements are reduced for deep-water operations – a deep-tow cable
or ROV umbilical and their associated handling gear impose a minimum size
constraint on a ship as compared to an AUV. The smallest deep-ocean AUV in
development can be operated from virtually any seaworthy vessel. ROVs are
typically operated from vessels equipped with Dynamic Positioning (DP)
systems – AUVs do not require this.
• Topside control/operations equipment is greatly reduced in comparison with
ROVs – a laptop computer may be all that is required to programme the vehicle
and to down-load survey results on its return.
• AUVs do not require a number of highly skilled operators to control and monitor
their movements and the data they collect. In the case of pipeline inspection or
surveys, (a task normally accomplished by an operator flying an ROV over a
pipeline and observing video images and corrosion data), the AUV can
manoeuvre itself in relation to the pipeline, maintain distances and a position to
provide optimum geometry for the sensors and perform inspection routines in
response to anomalous events or objects being detected.
• De-risking MCM missions, both in terms of removing the need for divers to
dispose of moored or buried mines and in operating well ahead or to the side of
a vessel performing a mine detection operation.
• De-risking ASW missions by acting as a sensor platform remote and distant
from manned vessels.
• Increase data quality by providing a stable platform free from the effects of
waves and weather. Apart from launch and recovery, AUV operation is
independent of surface wind and wave conditions – an ROV normally operates
from a DP vessel that may use a heave-compensated winch to minimise the
effect of surface motion on the ROV. The independence of the AUV can lead to
a reduction in weather/vessel motion-induced data problems.
• Increase data quality by optimising the altitude of the vehicle for the sensors
without a towed sensor platform.
• De-risking survey operations – in a deep-tow survey operation the altitude of
the platform is controlled by winch tension and the platform is often very slow to
respond to commands related to the imminence of an undersea ridge or
change in gradient that can cause either an impact. The AUV can react to
obstacles and changes in bottom topography and maintain optimal altitude both
up and down slope.
• Improved survey speeds – typical surface vessel survey deep-tow tow speeds
are limited by the drag from the cable to the order of 1 or 2 knots, as compared
to AUV speeds of typically between 3 and 4 knots.
• Vessel turns between adjacent survey lines is a highly costly procedure for a
deep-tow system, requiring several kilometres for sleds and towfish as
compared to turn radii for AUVs that can be less than 10 metres. A survey in
deep water (3,000m) that requires a towfish to be flown 200m above the
seabed may require a cable length from the vessel of the towfish of 5,000m or
more. To turn from one survey line to another the vessel may take 2 or more
hours to get the towfish in the line start position – depending on speed. Line
run-ins are also added in excess of the required line distance to give the towfish
and cable time to settle back to depth and be stable on the line. If the towfish is
too high, or not within the contractually allowed corridor each side of the survey
line, the turn may have to be repeated.

3 AUV Applications

3.1 Overview
In discussing applications for AUVs, it is sometime useful to think of the vehicle as a
platform to which sensors are attached. It is the combination of these sensors and the
physical capabilities of the vehicle (depth rating, speed, endurance, hovering) that will
determine the applications to which it can be put. The vast majority of AUVs are
designed to meet the needs of a single or small group of applications, as this is often
more successful than attempting to develop a system that can meet a multitude of
applications as compromises are inevitable. Some AUVs are available purely as a base
unit with a control system that is open source and configurable by the user to suit their
needs. Others can be supplied with an empty module (but with power and data
connections) that allows the user to fit their own sensor(s) to the main vehicle. AUV
suppliers are normally highly capable and flexible, and are often keen to explore new
potential applications for their vehicles. However, early contact is often advisable,
especially if there is a need to integrate a new sensor or system.

AUV applications are generally grouped into those related to the commercial, military
and research sectors, but the same vehicle can normally be used for more than one
application and in more than one sector. At the time of writing, the commercial sector
appears to require a small number of high value vehicles, the military requires a large
number of vehicles at the very high to mid value range, and the research sector uses a
small number of high value vehicles and a large number of mid and low value vehicles.
Possible application groupings include :

Commercial
• Light Intervention
• Pipeline and Structure Inspection
• Survey and Seabed Mapping

Military
• Anti Submarine Warfare
• Mine Counter Measures
• Rapid Environmental Assessment
• Rescue and Recovery
• Security & Surveillance

Research
• Geophysical and oceanographic studies
• Biological and ecological studies
• Environmental Mapping and Surveillance

In the commercial sector, survey and seabed mapping is the primary application of
AUVs to date, with a number of major survey contractors having fleets of typically deepwater
(>1,000m), torpedo-shaped AUVs providing data for oil and gas clients as well as
national hydrographic departments. Shallow water survey is also undertaken by AUVs
(with depth ratings between 500 and 1,000m) in the commercial sector, and this is of
relevance to a large proportion of the oil and gas real-estate in the Gulf of Mexico, North
Sea and elsewhere.

AUVs are used to survey the routes of potential pipelines and cable-routes, but the
inspection of existing cables and pipelines has been conducted by only a few vehicles
on a test-bed/proving basis. Once various gaps in the technology are successfully filled,
pipeline and subsea inspection will be a major AUV application, and this has been
recognised by major industry players such as Total, BP and Chevron. Notable pipeline
and cable inspection trials include:

• Aqua Explorer-2 [Cable inspection, Taiwan Strait, 1999]
• Alistar 3000 [Flowline inspection, BP King Field, Gulf of Mexico, 2006],
• Geosub [Pipeline inspection with AutoTracker, Scapa Flow 2005, and BP,
Clair Field, West of Shetland, 2006]

8,000km of pipelines including the 1,160km Langeled pipeline.8 A number of other large
pipeline projects are planned or underway in the region including the 1,220km Nord
Stream pipeline through the Baltic Sea, the 80km Baltic Connector and the 260km Baltic
Pipe. The Gulf of Mexico has over 22,500km of oil and gas pipelines.

In waters that are inaccessible to surface vessels due to depth or access, AUVs offer an
effective means of gathering pipeline inspection data, far beyond the physical range of
divers operating from the beach. A number of small AUVs (including the LIRMM TAIPAN
2, the Oceanscan-MST LAUV, the Hafmynd Gavia, the Hydroid REMUS 100 and others)
have been proposed for such projects, and the Gavia was trialled in the shallow waters
of the Caspian Sea in 2009 where it conducted inspections from the beach towards the
12m depth contour on multiple adjacent pipes. It should also be noted that small vesselbased
surveys often require a great deal of onshore processing and interpretation of the
data collected during the operations as the size and motion of the vessels preclude all
but basic quality control during data acquisition – just as would be the case if an AUV
were to acquire the data, but if the AUV were able to surface occasionally and relay
some of its data to shore via non-acoustic communications, processing and
interpretation could start much earlier.

It is perhaps in deep-water pipeline inspection tasks that AUVs have major advantages
over work-class ROVs. The primary one is that there are no operational penalties
incurred due to the long and heavy umbilicals required for deep-water ROV operations.
With increasing water depths, the impact of the umbilical weight becomes more
significant. Increasing the number of load bearing elements and buoyancy in the
umbilical can lead to heat dissipation and physical handling issues related to the weight
of the umbilical and the subsequent size and capacities of the topside winch. Other
advantages include a reduction in overall operation time and also in personnel
requirements.

A great deal of research has been undertaken into equipping AUVs (and smart ROVs)
with software that can distinguish and track a linear feature based on input from cameras
and other sensors, and to maintain the vehicle at the optimum offset distance from the
pipeline. In September 2004, a field trial of the AutoTracker system using the Geosub
AUV, designed to track and survey exposed and buried seabed pipelines. It was
developed by a consortium of partners including research laboratories based at Heriot
Watt University (Edinburgh), the National Technical University of Athens, and the
University of the Balearic Islands, together with Innovatum who supplied their magneticbased
pipetracker system and industrial partners BP and Alcatel Submarine Networks.

Under-Ice Research

Manned submersibles and AUVs offer unparalleled access for under-ice research when
compared with surface vessels and ROV deployments from vessels or through holes cut
in the ice. Manned submarine-based research started at the North Pole in 1930 when Sir
Hubert Wilkins acquired the submarine O-12 (subsequently renamed the Nautilus) from
the US Navy. Measurements were to be made by oceanographic pioneer Harald
Sverdrup from a specially rigged diving compartment. Due to mechanical issues the
submarine was limited to short runs at the edge of the ice pack. From 1946, the US
Navy conducted submarine operations under ice, with nuclear submarines crossing the
Arctic in 1958, and surfacing at the North Pole in 1959.

Numerous military submarines crossed the Arctic under the ice during the Cold War
years, and subsequent to the collapse of the former USSR, a co-operative
military/scientific programme was established to allow nuclear-powered submarines to
act as data gathering platforms. Six cruises were conducted during 1992-1999 called
Science Ice Exercises (SCICEXs) and although the Navy provided the submarine and
crew, the science community directed the track of the submarine (within limits in safety).
The torpedo room was adapted as a laboratory. As many as six civilian scientists were
aboard for each cruise. Of critical importance was the fact that at the conclusion of each
cruise, the data collected was declassified and released, often through the National
Science Foundation. During the six dedicated cruises, data was collected over 95,000
km of track during 211 days. Science participants came from several nations including
Canada, the United Kingdom, Russia and the U.S. The data collected ranged from the
physical and biological properties of the ocean to bathymetry and data on the
composition and structure of the ocean subbottom. Much of the bathymetry and seabed
data was destined for use in the US territorial claims under UNCLOS.

A number of AUVs have already been used for under-ice research, either investigating
the underside of the ice itself or the biological communities present. The Scottish
Fisheries Research Service trialled an SBES (Simrad EK-500, 38 and 120kHz) on the
Autosub-1 AUV in 1999 to investigate the distribution, abundance and behaviour of
Antarctic krill in the marginal ice zone, and to assess the potential for the use of AUVs in
the acoustic assessment of fish stock. As transducers were mounted on both the dorsal
(120 kHz) and ventral (38 kHz) surfaces of the AUV, a composite echogram, displaying
the whole water column including the sea surface, was obtained. This was the first time
that such data were collected unhindered by an umbilical or the effect of a towing
support vessel. A similar experiment was conducted in the Southern Ocean on Antarctic
krill using Autosub-2 and the RRS James Clark Ross. The USIPS project undertook
deployments of the Autosub-2 AUV under Antarctic ice, providing the first continuous
line-transect acoustic surveys of krill in the under-ice habitat. Krill density was found to
be elevated under ice and krill per se to be concentrated in a narrow band just inside the
ice-covered zone. There are some vehicles (such as Tuvaaq) that have been specifically
designed to be lowered and retrieved from small diameter holes in the ice – a
conventional AUV torpedo shape requires a much larger opening.

Using an AUV under ice is not without risk and vehicles have been lost (such as the
2005 loss of Autosub in the Antarctic) but the data collected has often been of great
scientific importance. Future AUV missions may well make use of the TILACSys
through-ice communications and location system currently under development by
Wireless Fibre Systems and Kongsberg. The TILACSys will enable a surface vessel, a
helicopter or even an unmanned aerial vehicle to locate and communicate with the AUV
through the ice, thus enabling commands to be sent that may assist in the recovery of
the vehicle.

Acoustic Modems

Modems provide the link between a computer sending or receiving information and the
transmission medium used whether this is copper wire, fibre-optic cable, air or seawater.
The electronics in the modem processes the information to be transmitted into an
optimized form that allows for ease of transmission, and maximizes the chance that it will
be received and understood by the receiving modem. This process includes the
construction of discreet packets of data. The modem’s electronics pass the data packets
to the transmission hardware which will obviously be chosen to suit the transmission
medium.
Acoustic energy travels at around 1,500 m/s in seawater (compared to around 340 m/s
in air), and is generated by the modem passing an electrical signal through a piezoelectric
crystal which then oscillates (vibrates) with a frequency that varies with that of
the electrical signal. The vibrations of the crystal are used to mechanically drive a plate
that is in contact with seawater and the energy from the vibrations are transferred to the
water. This mechanism is known as the transducer. The majority of acoustic modems
operate between 5,000 and 30,000 oscillations per second or Hertz (Hz). This range is
similar to the range of frequencies detectable by the human ear (hence the term
acoustics).

In order to maximize the range of an acoustic modem, it is possible to use a directional
transducer that focuses the energy along a particular axis and if such a system is used,
the receiving transducer must be close to the axis of the transmitting transducer.
(However, a cone is formed, even with directional transducers, which allows for some
offset.) The receiving transducer converts the incoming pressure variations/vibrations
into electrical impulses by a direct reversal of the piezo-electric process, the receiving
modem then converts the electrical signal into data packets and then to useable data.

Disclaimer
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The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate, but no representation
or warranty, express or implied, is made by the publisher as to the completeness, accuracy
or fairness of any information contained in it and we do not accept any responsibility in
relation to such information whether fact, opinion or conclusion that the reader may draw.
The views expressed are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent
those of the publishers.

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The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016
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Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace

Equipment ID   : 913
Equipment name   : The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016
Category   : Research Reports
 
Specifications  :
Name of the Report :
The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016

Contents

1 Executive Summary ......15
1.1 Introduction .......16
1.2 The Market......17
1.3 A Growing Aceptance .........18

2 Introduction ........21
2.1 Unmanned vehicles ........22
2.2 Unmanned vehicles in the marine sector ......23
2.3 AUV Rationale ........25
2.4 What are the alternatives to using AUV?.........26
2.5 AUV Types.............30
2.6 Significant Points in AUV History .........34

3 AUV Applications .........37
3.1 Overview ...........38
3.2 Commercial Survey .......40
3.3 Light Intervention .........53
3.4 Inspection..........55
3.5 Military Applications .........58
3.6 Research Applications ..........73

4 AUV Technology ........83
4.1 Introduction ..........84
4.2 Autonomy and Control ..........85
4.3 Communications .........89
4.4 Hull Shape, materials and buoyancy ...........93
4.5 Launch and recovery systems .........97
4.6 Navigation and Positioning .........98
4.7 Power .........103
4.8 Propulsion and Manoeuvring ........107
4.9 AUV Sensors .........108

5 Market Forecasts .......117
5.1 AUV market drivers .........118
5.2 The existing AUV fleet .........121
5.3 The model – a scenario approach .........124
5.4 Oil & Gas Sector Forecasts – Deepwater Survey (Units) .........125
5.5 Oil & Gas Sector Forecasts – Deepwater Fields (Units) .......126
5.6 Oil & Gas Sector Forecasts – Pipeline Inspection (Units) .......127
5.7 Hydrographic (Units) .........128
5.8 Research (Units) ...........129
5.9 Submarine Cables (Units)........130
5.10 Military (Units) ........131
5.11 Totals (Units) ..........132
5.12 Totals (Units & Values) ..........133

6 Appendices ........135
6.1 Summary Tables ........136
6.2 AUV Developers & Manufacturers ........140
6.3 Academic Developers and Operators .......144
6.4 Operators .........147
6.5 Technology Providers .........148
6.6 AUVs ...........151
6.7 Gliding AUV .........189
6.8 MCM vehicles with an FO link .........191
6.9 AUV and USV programs in the US military .........194

Figures
Figure 1: Most Likely (Units) ...........17
Figure 2: Most Likely (Value) .........17
Figure 3: Big Dog ..........22
Figure 4: Dragon Runner ...........22
Figure 5: MQ-9 Reaper UAV ........22
Figure 6: Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Family Tree ........23
Figure 7: Protector USV .........24
Figure 8: Dorado/SeaKeeper USSV ..........24
Figure 9: Deep Flight 1..........26
Figure 10: Commercial Diver .........26
Figure 11: The original JIM atmospheric diving suit .........26
Figure 12: Hydro Products RCV225 and RCV125 (1980) ........27
Figure 13: Serpent Internal Pipeline Inspection ROV ........27
Figure 14: The Fugro Discovery offshore survey vessel .....28
Figure 15: Hull mounted SBP profiler .......28
Figure 16: Tees Navigator .......28
Figure 17: SM-30 Sonar mapping System .........28
Figure 18: AUV running a typical survey line pattern ...........29
Figure 19: Airborne laser mapping System ......29
Figure 20: MH-53E Sea Dragon helicopter towing a magentic influence sled.........30
Figure 21: Slocum Glider ..........30
Figure 22: Slocum Glider .........30
Figure 23: The Autonomous Inspection Vehicle (prototype) ........31
Figure 24: Screenshot of the VisualWorks inspection data integration software ......32
Figure 25: ALIVE AUV Approaching Wellhead .........32
Figure 26: Research vessel Polarstern ..........34
Figure 27: SPURV 1 ........34
Figure 28: Submarine deployed, weaponised Manta AUV – the future? ........35
Figure 29: Artists impression of an Inspection AUV ..........38
Figure 30: SAUVIM Intervention AUV ..........39
Figure 31: SeaBED AUV on an Archeological dive in the Aegean Sea .......39
Figure 32: Unmanned Semi-Submersible survey vehicle...........41
Figure 33: SMB Nesbitt of the Royal Navy Hydrographic fleet .......42
Figure 34: Dorado USSV on trial with the Canadian Navy ..........42
Figure 35: Jetswath survey vehicle ...........43
Figure 36: Modules on the Gavia Offshore Surveyor AUV ..........44
Figure 37: Harbour and dredged channel bathymetry data collected by the Gavia
Offshore Surveyor .......... 44
Figure 38: The working end of a cutter-suction dredger ...........45
Figure 39: Example screenshot of the MakaiPlan GIS ........46
Figure 40: Telecommunications cables in the Mediterranean ........47
Figure 41: Aqua Explorer 2000 AUV used for cable route surveys ......47
Figure 42: Catenary and Taut-Leg Mooring arrangements .......48
Figure 43: The Maersk Inspirer jack-up platform underway to the Volve Field .......49
Figure 44: Lunar Energy/Rotech Tidal Turbine farm ..........49
Figure 45: The Hywind floating offshore wind turbine being installed in 2009 .......49
Figure 46: The Peace in Africa diamond mining vessel .........51
Figure 47: The DBM Geosurvey M600 AUV ........51
Figure 48: Gas Hydrate Observatory .........52
Figure 49: Recovery of the Eagle Ray AUV ...........53
Figure 50: Nodules off New Zealand ......53
Figure 51: OKPO-6000 .........53
Figure 52: Swimmer AUV ........54
Figure 53: Subsea Christmas Tree valve assembly .............54
Figure 54: Planned layout of the Reliance field, offshore India ......54
Figure 55: MacArtney Focus 2 ROTV ........55
Figure 56: Inspection ROV with Xplisit camera system (inset) .......55
Figure 57: Major Pipelines in the North Sea ........56
Figure 58: Geosub .........56
Figure 59: Alistar 3000 tracking pipeline during trials in 2004 .....56
Figure 60: The Seawolf-A Inspection AUV ............57
Figure 61: The prototype Autonomous Inspection Vehicle ......57
Figure 62: ROV view of tracking a moving riser during trials ........58
Figure 63: Different pipelay methods .............58
Figure 64: U212 AIP submarine .........59
Figure 65: SLITA array and the Ocean Explorer AUV in 2008 .......60
Figure 66: Liberdade/XRay Glider ........60
Figure 67: Submarine deployed PLUSNet modules .........61
Figure 68: Influence seabed mines (blue) and a floating contact mine (black) discovered
on an Iraqi vessel in 200 .......61
Figure 69: The Saab AUV62 ......62
Figure 70: Remote Multi Mission Vehicle with SSS Towfish ........62
Figure 71: ASV 6000 SASS Q (ASV)........63
Figure 72: Dorado (DDRC-Canada) ..........63
Figure 73: Transphibian AUV ..........63
Figure 74: REMUS 100 .........63
Figure 75: Seafox EMDV .............64
Figure 76: Stanflex 100 USV with MCM SSS towfish (yellow) ......64
Figure 77: AUV CTD card .........65
Figure 78: Hydrographic chart for the 1944 D-Day beach landings .........66
Figure 79: Daurade AUV ...........66
Figure 80: Bushell’s Turtle .........67
Figure 81: British X-Craft midget submarine ........67
Figure 82: Italian manned torpedo ........67
Figure 83: X-class USV ..........67
Figure 84: Sea Owl Mk 2 USV .........67
Figure 85: Hovering AUV (showing thrusters, DVL and camera system) .......68
Figure 86: Dry-deck shelter ..........69
Figure 87: Saab SUBROV ........70
Figure 88: SeaOwl 500 .........70
Figure 89: The Kamen K-Max helicopter.........70
Figure 90: Lockheed Martin Mule UGV .........70
Figure 91: ASV SASS-Q ........71
Figure 92: ASV-9500.........71
Figure 93: X-3 .......71
Figure 94: Drug-running submarine captured by the Columbian Navy .......71
Figure 95: REMUS 100 fitted with an extandable surveillance camera .......71
Figure 96: The Running Gear Entanglement System ..........72
Figure 97: MK 30 Mod 2 ASW target (helicopter recovery) .......72
Figure 98: The winning team (Heriot-Watt University) at SAUC-E 2009 ........73
Figure 99: T and S data gathered by a Gliding AUV off Newfoundland in 2006......74
Figure 100: Data density gathered by gliding AUV (left) vs surface vessel .....74
Figure 101: Microstructure sensor on the SAMS REMUS 600 AUV ......75
Figure 102: Upwelling ...........76
Figure 103: Glider deployment ...........76
Figure 104: The two modes of the NEREUS AUV .......76
Figure 105: Summary of UNCLOS definitions .........77
Figure 106: Tuvaaq AUV..........78
Figure 107: Odyssey AUV (Lake Winnepasauke, New Hampshire) ........78
Figure 108: Wally the seabed crawler in test .........79
Figure 109: Fisheries echogram gathered by a HUGIN AUV .......80
Figure 110: Hydroid REMUS 100 AUV schematic ........84
Figure 111: MIT Odyssey IV AUV schematic (plan view) .........84
Figure 112: Marport SQX-1 AUV schematic ...........85
Figure 113: Control system hardware (without pressure casing) ...........85
Figure 114: AUV control processes and behaviours ..........86
Figure 115: A stuck REMUS 600 and a manipulator equipped LBV150 ROV ......86
Figure 116: VectorMap Screenshots showing image overlays ........87
Figure 117: SeeByte SeeTrack Military CAD/CAC module (integrated into the AUV) .... 88
Figure 118: SeeTrack Military screenshot showing MCM line plan and pre-acquired SSS
imagery .........88
Figure 119: Kongsberg Hugin operation and navigation screens ........89
Figure 120: Hydroid VIP screenshot .........89
Figure 121: Teledyne Benthos Acoustic Modem ........91
Figure 122: Wireless Fibre Systems SeaTooth modem.......91
Figure 123: The TILAC through-ice radio system concept .......92
Figure 124: Doppler shift as seen from Argos satellites........93
Figure 125: Sonobuoy launch tubes on a P-3 Orion marine patrol aircraft .......93
Figure 126: Seahorse AUV ..........93
Figure 127: Deep-C AUV ..........94
Figure 128: Autonomous Benthic Explorer ........94
Figure 129: Glass pressure sphere placement in the Kermonaut AUV .......94
Figure 130: Iver2 AUV ...........94
Figure 131: The nose section and interior components of a REMUS .....95
Figure 132: Titanium blanks prior to machining for the REMUS 3000 .....95
Figure 133: Forward section of the Autosub 6000 AUV .......95
Figure 134: Nereus AUV showing some of its 1,600 ceramic buoyancy spheres ......96
Figure 135: SMA actuator deformed (left) and returned to its original shape (right) ....96
Figure 136: Deployment of a Hugin 1000MR from a Norwegian naval vessel ......97
Figure 137: LARS options for the REMUS 6000 (left) and 600 (right) ........97
Figure 138: Launch and Recovery cradle for an Iver2 .........98
Figure 139: Eurodocker .......98
Figure 140: Iver2 (EcoMapper variant) ........98
Figure 141: T24 Ring laser gyro INS ......99
Figure 142: PHINS 6000 INS ............99
Figure 143: Sea Devil DVL & INS ...........99
Figure 144: NavQuest 600 Micro DVL .........99
Figure 145: HAUV performing a vertical slice hull inspection ........100
Figure 146: Remus Gateway Buoy ..........101
Figure 147: GIB-Plus Buoys ........101
Figure 148: Micron USBL (500m range) .......102
Figure 149: HIPAP USBL (5000m range) .........102
Figure 150: IUSBL transducer (left) and beacon (right) .....102
Figure 151: NASNet VRx unit (left) and Station (right)............103
Figure 152: Mini Intelligent Pressure Sensor .........103
Figure 153: Autosub 6000 battery box containing lithium-polymer cells ....104
Figure 154: Odessey IV Battery Pack (out of pressure sphere) .......104
Figure 155: Mesa Systems CAN120 12V inductive power transfer system .....105
Figure 156: SAUV II ........... 106
Figure 157: AE1 Diesel engine ...........107
Figure 158: 370B Diesel Engine (370 HP) .......107
Figure 159: IntegratedThruster (rim drive) .......107
Figure 160: Bionik Manta in tank tests .......108
Figure 161: Dual port camera system on a Iver2 AUV ........109
Figure 162: Imagery of Amphora collected using the Seabed AUV ......109
Figure 163: 3-Axis RS232 digital compass, less than 3cm per side ........110
Figure 164 SM2000 Imaging Sonar .......110
Figure 165 7128 Imaging Sonar .........110
Figure 166 Blueview DF900-2250 ..........110
Figure 167 DIDSON ..........110
Figure 168: Imagery from a Tritech Super SeaKing OAS ......111
Figure 169: SeaKing SS hardware and imagery ......112
Figure 170: The muscle AUV with acoustically transparent panels ......112
Figure 171: Real-time SAS SSS processing screens ......112
Figure 172: Sub-bottom profiler data (24kHz) .........113
Figure 173: 3D CHIRP SBP on an Atlas SeaOtter AUV .........113
Figure 174: 50m penetration AUV SBP...........113
Figure 175: Reson 7125 200/400kHz SBS (top left) on a Saab Double Eagle AUV .... 114
Figure 176: SBS bathymetry from SRDUK / Tritech .........114
Figure 177: Data acquisition screenshot for Atlas Fansweep 30 SBS (200/400kHz) ... 114
Figure 178: HUGIN 3000 with Kongsberg SBS .........115
Figure 179: GeoSwath-Plus transducers on a REMUS 100........115
Figure 180: AquaExplorer 2000 ..........116
Figure 181: World Offshore Oil & Gas Expenditure ........119
Figure 182: World Deepwater Oil & Gas Expenditure .......120
Figure 183: World AUV Population by Size & Application ........121
Figure 184: World AUV Population – Numbers Built by Water Depth .......122
Figure 185: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units) ........125
Figure 186: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units) .......126
Figure 187: Oil & Gas – Pipeline Inspection (Units) ........127
Figure 188: Oil & Gas – Pipeline Inspection (Units) .......128
Figure 189: Research (Units) ............129
Figure 190: Submarine Cables (Units) ..........130
Figure 191: Military (Units) ......131
Figure 192: Low Case (Units by Market Sector) ..........133
Figure 193: Most Likely (Units by Market Sector) ........133
Figure 194: Most Likely (Units by Market Sector) .........134
Figure 195: 475 AUV .............151
Figure 196: Autonomous Benthic Explorer ..........151
Figure 197: ALISTAR 3000 AUV .............152
Figure 198: ALISTER AUV (shore launch) ...........152
Figure 199: ALIVE .........153
Figure 200: APOGEE ..........153
Figure 201: Aqua Explorer 1000 .........154
Figure 202: Aqua Explorer 2 (AE-2) .........154
Figure 203: Aqua Explorer 2000 ...........154
Figure 204: Theseus (right), ARCS (centre), Explorer (left) ......154
Figure 205: ARIES .............155
Figure 206: Testing the SASS 6m Mk 2.........155
Figure 207: Prototype AIV trials and concept ............156
Figure 208: AUSS ............156
Figure 209: Images from AUSS .............156
Figure 210: ASM-X Demonstrator ...........157
Figure 211: CL1 Target AUV .........157
Figure 212: Autosub-1 .........157
Figure 213: Autosub 2 .........157
Figure 214: Autosub 6000 .........158
Figure 215: AUV62 (Sapphire) ..........158
Figure 216: AUV 62 Submarine Training Target ..........158
Figure 217: Bluefin-9 ...........159
Figure 218: Bluefin 12.......159
Figure 219: Bluefin-21 BPAUV on the LCS and during deployment .......160
Figure 220: Echo Mapper 2 ...........160
Figure 221: SSS (left) and SBS (right) data collected by the Echo Mapper ......160
Figure 222: CETUS-1 (left), and CETUS-2 (right) .......161
Figure 223: Cormoran........161
Figure 224: CR-02 under test in 2006.......161
Figure 225: C-Scout...........162
Figure 226: DeepC .........162
Figure 227: DepthX (ENDURANCE variant) .........163
Figure 228: Dorado .........163
Figure 229: Docking variant ..........163
Figure 230: Dorado ............164
Figure 231: Double Eagle Mark 3 SAROV with PROSAS .........164
Figure 232: Echo Ranger (LDUUV) ..........165
Figure 233: Extendable mast ......165
Figure 234: AsterX .............165
Figure 235: Fetch 3.5 .........166
Figure 236: NNEMO 1.........166
Figure 237: FOLAGA .......166
Figure 238: Gavia .......167
Figure 239: Geosub ...........167
Figure 240: Bluefin HAUV .........168
Figure 241: HUGIN 1000 on the aft deck of the Karmy MCM vessel ........168
Figure 242: HUGIN aluminium/oxygen fuel cell battery .......169
Figure 243: Infante .............169
Figure 244: Iver2 ...........170
Figure 245: Light AUV ..........170
Figure 246: LMRS Launch & Recovery Trials ........171
Figure 247: MACO (left) and Manta (right) ..........171
Figure 248: Marine Bird...........172
Figure 249: Marum MOVE .......172
Figure 250: MARV ...............172
Figure 251: MAUVE ..........172
Figure 252: MRUUV ..........173
Figure 253: MR-X1 ................173
Figure 254: Nereus (AUV mode) and LED array ............174
Figure 255: Nereus manipulator and deployment (ROV mode) ........174
Figure 256: Odyssey IV on a public relations mission ........174
Figure 257: R-One Robot .............175
Figure 258: R2D4 ............175
Figure 259: Ranger ...............175
Figure 260: Rauver Mk 2 ........176
Figure 261: Redermor 2 .........176
Figure 262: ONR REMUS 100 thruster modules .............177
Figure 263: REMUS 100 ............177
Figure 264: REMUS 100 with external turbulence measurement sensors .......177
Figure 265: REMUS 600 Standard Configuration ........178
Figure 266: REMUS 600 (with SAS, extra battery packs and fin modules) .....178
Figure 267: SAMS / REMUS 6000 ..........179
Figure 268: RHyVAU Contueor ............179
Figure 269: RMS/RMV ...........180
Figure 270: RMMV components ........180
Figure 271: ASQ-20 towed MCM system ...........180
Figure 272: SAILARS .........181
Figure 273: SARA AUV ............181
Figure 274: SAUV Mark 2 ..........182
Figure 275: SAUVIM ......182
Figure 276: Seabed .........183
Figure 277: SeaHorse.........183
Figure 278: SeaOtter Mark 2 ........184
Figure 279: SeaWolf A variant ..........184
Figure 280: Sentry AUV meets the Alvin manned submersible ..........185
Figure 281: SWIMMER operational concept ...........185
Figure 282: The SWIMMER ROV component ............186
Figure 283: Talisman M ............186
Figure 284: Talisman L ..............187
Figure 285: Tantan ..........187
Figure 286: Tri-dog 1 ..............187
Figure 287: Tuvaaq...............188
Figure 288: Xray/Liberade Glider prototype ............189
Figure 289: SeaExplorer ..........189
Figure 290: SeaGlider.................190
Figure 291: Slocum Glider ............190
Figure 292: Spray Glider .............191
Figure 293: Archerfish after deployment from launching cradle ........... 191
Figure 294: K-Ster ...............192
Figure 295: Minesniper ................192
Figure 296: SeaFox ..............193
Figure 297: Transphibian ...............193

Tables
Table 1: Most Likely (Units & Values) .............17
Table 2: Most Likely (Values) ..............18
Table 3: Summary of IHO S-44 Minimum Standards ...........40
Table 4: Summary of IMCA S-003 Minimum Standards ............48
Table 5: Comparison of Underwater Modem Systems ...........90
Table 6: Power Sources for Deepwater AUVs ................104
Table 7: World AUV Population by Models and Units Built ...........121
Table 8: World AUV Population by Units & Application ...........122
Table 9: Applications of the 36 Models of Military AUVs..........122
Table 10: World AUV Fleet by Manufacturer ..........123
Table 11: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units by Size) ..........125
Table 12: Oil & Gas – Deepwater Survey (Units by Size) .........126
Table 13: Oil & Gas – Pipeline Inspection (Units by Size).........127
Table 14: Hydrographic Survey (Units by Size) ..........128
Table 15: Research (Units by Size) ........129
Table 16: Hydrographic Survey (Units by Size) ..........130
Table 17: Miitary (Units by Size) ...........131
Table 18: Total AUVs (Units by Region) ................132
Table 19: Total AUVs (Units by Market Sector) ............132
Table 20: Summary Table of AUV actively used or under development for Survey,
Inspection and Research ...........136
Table 21: Summary Table of AUV actively used by military organizations or developers ......137
Table 22: Summary Table of ASW Training Targets .........139
Table 23: Summary Table of Gliding AUV ............139
Table 24: Summary Table of Expendable Mine Destructor Vehicles (EMDV) ......139

2 An Introduction to Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

Requirements – there are now AUVs that are capable of hovering and so have thrusters
that provide vertical as well as horizontal motion control. Some AUVs have multiple hulls
for maximum stability and are used as camera platforms, some have no thrusters at all
and travel forwards using a gliding motion and others have propulsion systems based on
biological mechanisms such as eels, snakes and manta-rays (bio-mimetic systems).

In order to present the most streamlined design, sensors used on AUVs are normally
integrated into the body of the vehicle. This requires a high degree of co-operation at the
design stage between sensor and vehicle developers. Some AUVs utilise a modular
approach that allows for some variation of sensor payload and battery capacity between
successive dives and this approach can also assist in the systems design process.
However, there are no modular systems currently available that would add hover
functionality.

2.3 AUV Rationale
AUVs use can be justified for specific projects in a number of ways related to access,
safety, data quality and survey costs. Benefits include:
• Operation in deep, shallow and restricted waters where vessels may not be
allowed, dependant on the depth rating of their systems.
• Deployment can be from the shore or a minimally equipped, low-cost vessel
that is then free for other work.
• The range of an AUV is limited by its power supply, not by the length of an
umbilical.
• There can be multiple AUVs used from the same vessel at the same time, all
communicating between themselves or via the host vessel. They can share
tasks and information, making decisions based on each others progress, power
consumption or operational faults.
• Vessel requirements are reduced for deep-water operations – a deep-tow cable
or ROV umbilical and their associated handling gear impose a minimum size
constraint on a ship as compared to an AUV. The smallest deep-ocean AUV in
development can be operated from virtually any seaworthy vessel. ROVs are
typically operated from vessels equipped with Dynamic Positioning (DP)
systems – AUVs do not require this.
• Topside control/operations equipment is greatly reduced in comparison with
ROVs – a laptop computer may be all that is required to programme the vehicle
and to down-load survey results on its return.
• AUVs do not require a number of highly skilled operators to control and monitor
their movements and the data they collect. In the case of pipeline inspection or
surveys, (a task normally accomplished by an operator flying an ROV over a
pipeline and observing video images and corrosion data), the AUV can
manoeuvre itself in relation to the pipeline, maintain distances and a position to
provide optimum geometry for the sensors and perform inspection routines in
response to anomalous events or objects being detected.
• De-risking MCM missions, both in terms of removing the need for divers to
dispose of moored or buried mines and in operating well ahead or to the side of
a vessel performing a mine detection operation.
• De-risking ASW missions by acting as a sensor platform remote and distant
from manned vessels.
• Increase data quality by providing a stable platform free from the effects of
waves and weather. Apart from launch and recovery, AUV operation is
independent of surface wind and wave conditions – an ROV normally operates
from a DP vessel that may use a heave-compensated winch to minimise the
effect of surface motion on the ROV. The independence of the AUV can lead to
a reduction in weather/vessel motion-induced data problems.
• Increase data quality by optimising the altitude of the vehicle for the sensors
without a towed sensor platform.
• De-risking survey operations – in a deep-tow survey operation the altitude of
the platform is controlled by winch tension and the platform is often very slow to
respond to commands related to the imminence of an undersea ridge or
change in gradient that can cause either an impact. The AUV can react to
obstacles and changes in bottom topography and maintain optimal altitude both
up and down slope.
• Improved survey speeds – typical surface vessel survey deep-tow tow speeds
are limited by the drag from the cable to the order of 1 or 2 knots, as compared
to AUV speeds of typically between 3 and 4 knots.
• Vessel turns between adjacent survey lines is a highly costly procedure for a
deep-tow system, requiring several kilometres for sleds and towfish as
compared to turn radii for AUVs that can be less than 10 metres. A survey in
deep water (3,000m) that requires a towfish to be flown 200m above the
seabed may require a cable length from the vessel of the towfish of 5,000m or
more. To turn from one survey line to another the vessel may take 2 or more
hours to get the towfish in the line start position – depending on speed. Line
run-ins are also added in excess of the required line distance to give the towfish
and cable time to settle back to depth and be stable on the line. If the towfish is
too high, or not within the contractually allowed corridor each side of the survey
line, the turn may have to be repeated.

3 AUV Applications

3.1 Overview
In discussing applications for AUVs, it is sometime useful to think of the vehicle as a
platform to which sensors are attached. It is the combination of these sensors and the
physical capabilities of the vehicle (depth rating, speed, endurance, hovering) that will
determine the applications to which it can be put. The vast majority of AUVs are
designed to meet the needs of a single or small group of applications, as this is often
more successful than attempting to develop a system that can meet a multitude of
applications as compromises are inevitable. Some AUVs are available purely as a base
unit with a control system that is open source and configurable by the user to suit their
needs. Others can be supplied with an empty module (but with power and data
connections) that allows the user to fit their own sensor(s) to the main vehicle. AUV
suppliers are normally highly capable and flexible, and are often keen to explore new
potential applications for their vehicles. However, early contact is often advisable,
especially if there is a need to integrate a new sensor or system.

AUV applications are generally grouped into those related to the commercial, military
and research sectors, but the same vehicle can normally be used for more than one
application and in more than one sector. At the time of writing, the commercial sector
appears to require a small number of high value vehicles, the military requires a large
number of vehicles at the very high to mid value range, and the research sector uses a
small number of high value vehicles and a large number of mid and low value vehicles.
Possible application groupings include :

Commercial
• Light Intervention
• Pipeline and Structure Inspection
• Survey and Seabed Mapping

Military
• Anti Submarine Warfare
• Mine Counter Measures
• Rapid Environmental Assessment
• Rescue and Recovery
• Security & Surveillance

Research
• Geophysical and oceanographic studies
• Biological and ecological studies
• Environmental Mapping and Surveillance

In the commercial sector, survey and seabed mapping is the primary application of
AUVs to date, with a number of major survey contractors having fleets of typically deepwater
(>1,000m), torpedo-shaped AUVs providing data for oil and gas clients as well as
national hydrographic departments. Shallow water survey is also undertaken by AUVs
(with depth ratings between 500 and 1,000m) in the commercial sector, and this is of
relevance to a large proportion of the oil and gas real-estate in the Gulf of Mexico, North
Sea and elsewhere.

AUVs are used to survey the routes of potential pipelines and cable-routes, but the
inspection of existing cables and pipelines has been conducted by only a few vehicles
on a test-bed/proving basis. Once various gaps in the technology are successfully filled,
pipeline and subsea inspection will be a major AUV application, and this has been
recognised by major industry players such as Total, BP and Chevron. Notable pipeline
and cable inspection trials include:

• Aqua Explorer-2 [Cable inspection, Taiwan Strait, 1999]
• Alistar 3000 [Flowline inspection, BP King Field, Gulf of Mexico, 2006],
• Geosub [Pipeline inspection with AutoTracker, Scapa Flow 2005, and BP,
Clair Field, West of Shetland, 2006]

8,000km of pipelines including the 1,160km Langeled pipeline.8 A number of other large
pipeline projects are planned or underway in the region including the 1,220km Nord
Stream pipeline through the Baltic Sea, the 80km Baltic Connector and the 260km Baltic
Pipe. The Gulf of Mexico has over 22,500km of oil and gas pipelines.

In waters that are inaccessible to surface vessels due to depth or access, AUVs offer an
effective means of gathering pipeline inspection data, far beyond the physical range of
divers operating from the beach. A number of small AUVs (including the LIRMM TAIPAN
2, the Oceanscan-MST LAUV, the Hafmynd Gavia, the Hydroid REMUS 100 and others)
have been proposed for such projects, and the Gavia was trialled in the shallow waters
of the Caspian Sea in 2009 where it conducted inspections from the beach towards the
12m depth contour on multiple adjacent pipes. It should also be noted that small vesselbased
surveys often require a great deal of onshore processing and interpretation of the
data collected during the operations as the size and motion of the vessels preclude all
but basic quality control during data acquisition – just as would be the case if an AUV
were to acquire the data, but if the AUV were able to surface occasionally and relay
some of its data to shore via non-acoustic communications, processing and
interpretation could start much earlier.

It is perhaps in deep-water pipeline inspection tasks that AUVs have major advantages
over work-class ROVs. The primary one is that there are no operational penalties
incurred due to the long and heavy umbilicals required for deep-water ROV operations.
With increasing water depths, the impact of the umbilical weight becomes more
significant. Increasing the number of load bearing elements and buoyancy in the
umbilical can lead to heat dissipation and physical handling issues related to the weight
of the umbilical and the subsequent size and capacities of the topside winch. Other
advantages include a reduction in overall operation time and also in personnel
requirements.

A great deal of research has been undertaken into equipping AUVs (and smart ROVs)
with software that can distinguish and track a linear feature based on input from cameras
and other sensors, and to maintain the vehicle at the optimum offset distance from the
pipeline. In September 2004, a field trial of the AutoTracker system using the Geosub
AUV, designed to track and survey exposed and buried seabed pipelines. It was
developed by a consortium of partners including research laboratories based at Heriot
Watt University (Edinburgh), the National Technical University of Athens, and the
University of the Balearic Islands, together with Innovatum who supplied their magneticbased
pipetracker system and industrial partners BP and Alcatel Submarine Networks.

Under-Ice Research

Manned submersibles and AUVs offer unparalleled access for under-ice research when
compared with surface vessels and ROV deployments from vessels or through holes cut
in the ice. Manned submarine-based research started at the North Pole in 1930 when Sir
Hubert Wilkins acquired the submarine O-12 (subsequently renamed the Nautilus) from
the US Navy. Measurements were to be made by oceanographic pioneer Harald
Sverdrup from a specially rigged diving compartment. Due to mechanical issues the
submarine was limited to short runs at the edge of the ice pack. From 1946, the US
Navy conducted submarine operations under ice, with nuclear submarines crossing the
Arctic in 1958, and surfacing at the North Pole in 1959.

Numerous military submarines crossed the Arctic under the ice during the Cold War
years, and subsequent to the collapse of the former USSR, a co-operative
military/scientific programme was established to allow nuclear-powered submarines to
act as data gathering platforms. Six cruises were conducted during 1992-1999 called
Science Ice Exercises (SCICEXs) and although the Navy provided the submarine and
crew, the science community directed the track of the submarine (within limits in safety).
The torpedo room was adapted as a laboratory. As many as six civilian scientists were
aboard for each cruise. Of critical importance was the fact that at the conclusion of each
cruise, the data collected was declassified and released, often through the National
Science Foundation. During the six dedicated cruises, data was collected over 95,000
km of track during 211 days. Science participants came from several nations including
Canada, the United Kingdom, Russia and the U.S. The data collected ranged from the
physical and biological properties of the ocean to bathymetry and data on the
composition and structure of the ocean subbottom. Much of the bathymetry and seabed
data was destined for use in the US territorial claims under UNCLOS.

A number of AUVs have already been used for under-ice research, either investigating
the underside of the ice itself or the biological communities present. The Scottish
Fisheries Research Service trialled an SBES (Simrad EK-500, 38 and 120kHz) on the
Autosub-1 AUV in 1999 to investigate the distribution, abundance and behaviour of
Antarctic krill in the marginal ice zone, and to assess the potential for the use of AUVs in
the acoustic assessment of fish stock. As transducers were mounted on both the dorsal
(120 kHz) and ventral (38 kHz) surfaces of the AUV, a composite echogram, displaying
the whole water column including the sea surface, was obtained. This was the first time
that such data were collected unhindered by an umbilical or the effect of a towing
support vessel. A similar experiment was conducted in the Southern Ocean on Antarctic
krill using Autosub-2 and the RRS James Clark Ross. The USIPS project undertook
deployments of the Autosub-2 AUV under Antarctic ice, providing the first continuous
line-transect acoustic surveys of krill in the under-ice habitat. Krill density was found to
be elevated under ice and krill per se to be concentrated in a narrow band just inside the
ice-covered zone. There are some vehicles (such as Tuvaaq) that have been specifically
designed to be lowered and retrieved from small diameter holes in the ice – a
conventional AUV torpedo shape requires a much larger opening.

Using an AUV under ice is not without risk and vehicles have been lost (such as the
2005 loss of Autosub in the Antarctic) but the data collected has often been of great
scientific importance. Future AUV missions may well make use of the TILACSys
through-ice communications and location system currently under development by
Wireless Fibre Systems and Kongsberg. The TILACSys will enable a surface vessel, a
helicopter or even an unmanned aerial vehicle to locate and communicate with the AUV
through the ice, thus enabling commands to be sent that may assist in the recovery of
the vehicle.

Acoustic Modems

Modems provide the link between a computer sending or receiving information and the
transmission medium used whether this is copper wire, fibre-optic cable, air or seawater.
The electronics in the modem processes the information to be transmitted into an
optimized form that allows for ease of transmission, and maximizes the chance that it will
be received and understood by the receiving modem. This process includes the
construction of discreet packets of data. The modem’s electronics pass the data packets
to the transmission hardware which will obviously be chosen to suit the transmission
medium.
Acoustic energy travels at around 1,500 m/s in seawater (compared to around 340 m/s
in air), and is generated by the modem passing an electrical signal through a piezoelectric
crystal which then oscillates (vibrates) with a frequency that varies with that of
the electrical signal. The vibrations of the crystal are used to mechanically drive a plate
that is in contact with seawater and the energy from the vibrations are transferred to the
water. This mechanism is known as the transducer. The majority of acoustic modems
operate between 5,000 and 30,000 oscillations per second or Hertz (Hz). This range is
similar to the range of frequencies detectable by the human ear (hence the term
acoustics).

In order to maximize the range of an acoustic modem, it is possible to use a directional
transducer that focuses the energy along a particular axis and if such a system is used,
the receiving transducer must be close to the axis of the transmitting transducer.
(However, a cone is formed, even with directional transducers, which allows for some
offset.) The receiving transducer converts the incoming pressure variations/vibrations
into electrical impulses by a direct reversal of the piezo-electric process, the receiving
modem then converts the electrical signal into data packets and then to useable data.

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those of the publishers.

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The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016
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AUV Technology
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AUV Applications
AUV Rationale
Acoustic Modems

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Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace - The World AUV Market Report 2012 - 2016
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Oil and Gas Forecast - Deepwater Survey report for Sale
 
AUV Market Report for sale
 
Oil and Gas Forecast - Deepwater Fields report for Sale
 

To enquire on this equipment, please send an email to

The information contained herein is believed to be accurate but has not been verified. This equipment is subject to prior sale and sold “where-is as-is” with no warranties from Worldoils Pte Ltd or the Seller expressed or implied.
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace    
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace

 


 

If you cannot find the new or used offshore rigs, vessels or equipment of any type, size or make that you are looking for, please send us an email to and we shall offer you.


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