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The World FLNG Market Report 2011 - 2017
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace    

Equipment ID   : 914
Equipment name   : The World FLNG Market Report 2011 - 2017
Category   : Research Reports
Specifications   : Name of the Report :
The World FLNG Market Report 2011 - 2017

Contents

1 Executive Summary and Conclusions.....15

2 The LNG Industry .........23
2.1 Liquefied Natural Gas ........24
2.2 Chemical Properties of LNG .....24
2.3 The LNG Chain – Onshore & FLNG Comparison ..........25
2.4 Continuing Growth of the LNG Industry .......27

3 Why Floating LNG? .........29
3.1 Increasing Long-Term Gas Demand ..........30
3.2 Gas Supply .........31
3.3 Onshore vs Offshore .........34
3.4 Stranded Gas Fields .........35
3.5 Environment Issues ..........36
3.6 Security Issues ..........36
3.7 Political Issues ..............37
3.8 Complimentary Technology .............38
3.9 The History of FLNG ........39
3.10 FLNG Focus Areas .........40

4 Topsides .........41
4.1 Liquefaction Processes .........42
4.2 Liquefaction Technology ..........45
4.3 Regasification Processes ..........52

5 Hulls ..........55
5.1 Hull design concepts .........56
5.2 Containment Systems .........59
5.3 Shipyard Review ..........65
5.4 Conversions versus Newbuilds .........67

6 Moorings and Transfer Systems .........69
6.1 Mooring Systems ..........70
6.2 Offloading Systems ..........73

7 FLNG Companies .........79
7.1 Operators – ConocoPhillips ........80
7.2 Operators – Gasol ..........81
7.3 Operators – GDF Suez ..........81
7.4 Operators – Inpex Corporation .........82
7.5 Operators – Petrobras ..........83
7.6 Operators – Petronas ..........83
7.7 Operators – PTT PLC .........84
7.8 Operators – Shell ........85
7.9 Independent Service Providers – Aker Solutions .......85
7.10 Independent Service Providers – BW Offshore .......86
7.11 Independent Service Providers – Excelerate Energy ......87
7.12 Independent Service Providers – Golar LNG ......88
7.13 Independent Service Providers – Flex LNG .......89
7.14 Independent Service Providers – Höegh LNG ........90
7.15 Independent Service Providers – Saipem ........92
7.16 Independent Service Providers – SBM Offshore ..........92
7.17 Independent Service Providers – Sevan Marine ........94
7.18 Independent Service Providers – Technip .......94
7.19 Independent Service Providers – Teekay Corporation .........95
7.20 Independent Service Providers – TORP LNG ......96

8 Global Overview of FLNG Activity .......99
8.1 Global Overview of FLNG Prospects ........100
8.2 Africa .......101
8.3 Asia ..........102
8.4 Australasia ..........105
8.5 Eastern Europe and FSU.........107
8.6 Latin America ........108
8.7 Middle East.......111
8.8 North America .............112
8.9 Western Europe ...........114

9 Case Studies ............117
9.1 Prelude FPSO, Timor Sea ..........118
9.2 Pecém and Guanabara Bay FSRU, Brazil .......120
9.3 Gulf Gateway Energy Bridge, USA ........121
9.4 Teesside GasPort, UK ..........123

10 Market Forecast .......125
10.1 Introduction ..........126
10.2 The Forecasting Process ..........126
10.3 Pricing Procedures ........127
10.4 Capex Breakdowns .........127
10.5 Liquefaction Terminals .........129
10.6 Import Terminals ...........131
10.7 Forecast by Regions ..........133
10.8 The Global FLNG Market by Component ......137
10.9 The Global FLNG Market by Service ..........137
10.10 The Global FLNG Market by Facility Type ........138
10.11 The Global FLNG Market by Region .........139

11 Appendices .........141
11.1 Conversion Tables .........142

Figures

Figure 1: Prospective Additions to LNG Output ........17
Figure 2: Report Edition Comparisons – FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Expenditure ....... 19
Figure 3: Report Edition Comparisons – FLNG Import Terminal Expenditure.......19
Figure 4: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Type 2006-2017 ..........20
Figure 5: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Region 2006-2017 .........20
Figure 6: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Service 2006-2017 ...........21
Figure 7: The LNG Chain ........25
Figure 8: Historical Development of the LNG Industry ..........27
Figure 9: LNG Imports by Region 1995-2009 .........27
Figure 10: LNG Trade Movements in 2009 ........28
Figure 11: Gas Consumption by Region 1995-2030 ........30
Figure 12: Global Oil Supply 1930-2025 ..........30
Figure 13: Global Gas Production 1930-2025 ........31
Figure 14: US Crude Price vs. Gas Price Forecast .........32
Figure 15: Natural Gas Production and Consumption in the USA ......33
Figure 16: Natural Gas Imports in the USA.........33
Figure 17: Onshore vs. Offshore Liquefaction Terminal Capex .......34
Figure 18: Onshore vs. Offshore Liquefaction Terminals Total Costs ........34
Figure 19: Stranded Gas Fields with Resources between 0.3-1.5 Tcf by Region ......35
Figure 20: Estimated Distribution of Offshore Gas Fields (Logarithmic scale).......35
Figure 21: Floating Barrier Test ...........36
Figure 22: Greater Sunrise Field ........37
Figure 23: A Typical Subsea Layout .......38
Figure 24: FLNG Map and Timeline .......39
Figure 25: FLNG Focus Areas .........40
Figure 26: LNG FPSO Process Diagram ........44
Figure 27: Comparison Between Different Liquefaction Processes ......45
Figure 28: Nitrogen Expander Liquefaction Process .........45
Figure 29: Mustang LNG Smart™ Dual Nitrogen Liquefaction Process ......46
Figure 30: NicheLNGsm Liquefaction Technology ......46
Figure 31: Proteus LNG Process ........47
Figure 32: Proteus LNG FLNG Vessel ......47
Figure 33: Single Mixed Refrigerant Process.......48
Figure 34: Propane Pre-Cooled Mixed refrigerant Process ........49
Figure 35: Pure Refrigerant Cascade Process .......50
Figure 36: ConocoPhillips Optimised Cascade Process .........50
Figure 37: Statoil-Linde Mixed Fluid Cascade Process .......51
Figure 38: Dual Mixed Refrigerant Process ........51
Figure 39: Regasification Process Schematic ........52
Figure 40: Side and Front Schematic of the Sea Water Vapouriser (Open-loop).......53
Figure 41: Submerged Combustion Vapouriser (Closed Loop) .......53
Figure 42: Sevan Marine’s SSP as an LNG FPSO .......57
Figure 43: Technip's Semi-Submersible FLNG Design .......58
Figure 44: LEFT-Membrane Tank. RIGHT Hanjin Pyeongtaek carrier .......59
Figure 45: Sloshing Inside a Tank ......60
Figure 46: Single and Double Row Membrane System .......60
Figure 47: Spherical LNG Tank ........61
Figure 48: Typical Moss Layout .....61
Figure 49: IHI SPB Tank ......62
Figure 50: LNG Carrier Layout .......62
Figure 51: Hull Section of an LNG Carrier with ADBT Tank .......63
Figure 52: Double Wall Panel ........63
Figure 53: ACT-IB Containment System .......64
Figure 54: Sevan Marine Containment System .......64
Figure 55: Mustang LNG FPSO with Horizontal Tanks (exposed top left) ....... 65
Figure 56: Age of Hulls of Current LNG Carrier Fleet ......67
Figure 57: Conventional Spread Mooring .......70
Figure 58: A Swivel Stack by Bluewater .....71
Figure 59: External Turret on FLNG Concept .......72
Figure 60: Energy Bridge-Cutaway Showing Internal Turret .....72
Figure 61: Side by Side Offloading via Loading Arms .........73
Figure 62: DCMA-S Loading Arm ........73
Figure 63: Side by Side Mooring .....74
Figure 64: Teesside ship-to-ship .......74
Figure 65: Tandem Offloading via Aerial or Floating Hoses ....75
Figure 66: BTT System ......75
Figure 67: SBM SYMO System ......75
Figure 68: Ship to Shore Offloading ......76
Figure 69: APL'S STL Buoy .......76
Figure 70: Technip Flexi-Quay .........77
Figure 71: Bluewater Big Sweep ........77
Figure 72: Fixed Platform ........77
Figure 73: TOP: Location of Masela Block BOTTOM: Layout of LNG FPSO.....82
Figure 74: Nnwa/Doro FLNG Concept .........86
Figure 75: Moss Type FPSO Concept .........87
Figure 76: Excelerate Energy’s Energy Bridge Liquefaction Vessel .......88
Figure 77: Golar LNG’s FSRU Design .......89
Figure 78: Flex LNG Producer .........90
Figure 79: Höegh LNG’s Deep Water Port........91
Figure 80: Höegh LNG FPSO .......91
Figure 81: SBM Offshore's LNG FPSO Design ......93
Figure 82: LEFT: Converted FSRU RIGHT: Fixed Platform Regas Unit ....93
Figure 83: Technip's LNG FPSO Design .....95
Figure 84:Teekay’s Newbuild LNG FPSO Design .....96
Figure 85: TORP Techology Hiload Regas Units with LNG Carrier ......97
Figure 86: TORP Technology Hiload Regas Unit .......97
Figure 87: Prospective Additions to FLNG Liquefaction Capacity 2011-2017.....100
Figure 88: Prospective Additions to FLNG Import Capacity 2011-2017 ......100
Figure 89: Ocean Epoch ......118
Figure 90: Shell's FLNG Concept......118
Figure 91: LNG Carrier alongside Shell LNG FPSO ......119
Figure 92: The Golar Spirit .......120
Figure 93: Pecém LNG Pier ........120
Figure 94: Pecém LNG pier during construction ........120
Figure 95: The Excelsior Energy Bridge regasification vessel .......121
Figure 96: Excelsior EBRV ..........123
Figure 97: Different components of an FLNG vessel .......27
Figure 98:Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Region 2006-2017 ..... 129
Figure 99: Regional Share of Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals 2011-2017.......129
Figure 100: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Component 2006-2017......130
Figure 101: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Service 2006-2017......130
Figure 102: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Region 2006-2017 ........... 131
Figure 103: Regional Share of Capex on FLNG Import Terminals 2006-2017.....131
Figure 104: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Component 2006-2017.....132
Figure 105: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Service 2006-2017 .......132
Figure 106: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Africa by Type 2006-2017 ......133
Figure 107: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Asia by Type 2006-2017 .......133
Figure 108: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Australasia by Type 2006-2017 ..... 134
Figure 109: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Eastern Europe & FSU by Type 2006-2017 .....134
Figure 110: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Latin America by Type 2006-2017......135
Figure 111: Capex on FLNG Facilities in the Middle East by Type 2006-2017......135
Figure 112: Capex on FLNG Facilities in North America by Type 2006-2017......136
Figure 113: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Western Europe by Type 2006-2017.......136
Figure 114: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Component 2006-2017 ...... 137
Figure 115: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Service 2006-2017.......137
Figure 116: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Type 2006-2017 ........138
Figure 117: Global Capex Share on FLNG Facilities by Type 2011-2017...... 138
Figure 118: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Region 2006-2017........ 139
Figure 119: Global Capex Share on FLNG Facilities by Region 2011-2017......139

Tables

Table 1: Differences between Announced and Forecast Units/Capacity (mmtpa)......18
Table 2: Changes since the Previous Edition – Liquefaction .......19
Table 3: Changes since the Previous Edition – Import .........19
Table 4: Example of LNG Composition between Alaska and Algeria .......24
Table 5: World's Top Ten Countries for Proven Gas Reserves .......31
Table 6: Pacific Basin LNG Imports 2008-2015 ......32
Table 7: Estimated Flared Volumes from Satellite Data .....36
Table 8: Table of Typical Natural Gas Composition .......42
Table 9: FLNG Concepts by Liquefaction Processes .......43
Table 10: LNG Carrier Construction - Annual Shipyard Capacity .......65
Table 11: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in Africa .......101
Table 12: FLNG Liquefaction Prospects in Asia .........102
Table 13: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in Asia .........102
Table 14: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in Australasia ......105
Table 15: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in Latin America ......108
Table 16: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in Latin America .........108
Table 17: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in Latin America .......108
Table 18: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in the Middle East ........111
Table 19: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in the Middle East .........111
Table 20: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in the Middle East...........111
Table 21: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in North America ..........112
Table 22: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in North America .........112
Table 23: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in Western Europe .......114
Table 24: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in Western Europe .......114
Table 25: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Region 2006-2017......129
Table 26: FLNG Liquefaction Capacity Coming Onstream 2006-2017 ..........129
Table 27: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Component 2006-2017........130
Table 28: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Service 2006-2017.......130
Table 29: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Region 2006-2017 ..........131
Table 30: FLNG Import Capacity Coming Onstream 2006-2017 .........131
Table 31: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Component 2006-2017.......132
Table 32: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Service 2006-2017 .............. 132
Table 33: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Africa by Type 2006-2017 ................. 133
Table 34: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Asia by Type 2006-2017 ................... 133
Table 35: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Australasia by Type 2006-2017 ........ 134
Table 36: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Eastern Europe & FSU by Type 2006-2017......134
Table 37: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Latin America by Type 2006-2017......135
Table 38: Capex on FLNG Facilities in the Middle East by Type 2006-2017......135
Table 39: Capex on FLNG Facilities in North America by Type 2006-2017.......136
Table 40: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Western Europe by Type 2006-2017.....136
Table 41: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Component 2006-2017......137
Table 42: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Service 2006-2017 ........137
Table 43: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Type 2006-2017 .........138
Table 44: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Region 2006-2017 .......139
Table 45: Conversion Table ........142

3 Why Floating LNG?

Asian Demand
Global recession in 2008/2009 lowered demand for LNG, particularly in the major import
countries such as Japan and South Korea in the Pacific basin. However, long-term
demand for natural gas and therefore LNG remains strong in these countries and
therefore it is forecast that LNG imports will return to 2008 levels by 2011. Beyond this,
high long-term economic growth in countries such as China and India will drive LNG
demand upwards in this region.

China is currently building a number of new LNG terminals along its coast to meet this
future demand. While most of the Chinese projects are located onshore, as inexpensive
land and labour is available, CNOOC has expressed an interest in developing a floating
offshore project in the future.

India is another country with many onshore LNG developments on the drawing board.
However, many of these projects have seen continuous delays in sanctioning and
construction. In June 2009 New Mangalore Port Trust announced its intentions to build
an offshore facility in the port city which would be the first FLNG terminal in the country.

USA Gas Prices
Gas prices in the USA tracked the oil price through the peak and decline in 2008. Since
then, the two lines have diverged as gas prices have not yet rebounded to match the
recent increase in crude prices. While the oil supply has seen OPEC production cuts and
falling output from non-OPEC countries, the global gas supply has remained
comparatively buoyant. The LNG industry in particular has seen falling short-term
demand and rising supply through the completion of large-scale terminal projects in
Qatar and Russia.

Lower gas prices in the USA and other areas have caused many LNG projects to suffer
delays in final sanctioning as companies struggled to find financing. These delays are
likely, along with long-term gas demand increases, to result in increased gas prices over
the next decade as the market moves from a supply to a demand surplus. This will drive
the building of new LNG terminals both onshore and offshore. However, it is worth noting
that gas supply contracts in Asian countries are primarily linked to crude prices rather
than gas prices.

4 Topsides

Kanfa Aragon, a process engineering company owned by Sevan Marine, has developed
their own nitrogen expander system – the Aragon HMC Cycle – which aims to increase
the process efficiency of the original system by as much as 50%. Kanfa Aragon has
agreed to supply liquefaction topsides to Flex LNG for their first LNG FPSO.

Mustang LNG Smart
Mustang has developed a nitrogen expander liquefaction process (NDX-1) for FLNG
applications that uses two loops. These two nitrogen streams are cooled in the main
plate fin exchanger.

Mustang believes that their NDX-1 dual nitrogen process can offer thermal efficiency of
between 91% and 93%.

This liquefaction technology has been selected by Petronas for use on its planned
floater, by Gasol for its Near-Shore LNG Production System and by Teekay for its
generic LNG FPSO design.

Niche Liquefaction Process
Niche Dual expansion being developed by CB&I Lummus is similar to the dual
nitrogen process, however the first loop consists of an open loop where the refrigerant is
the natural gas itself (mostly methane). The second loop is a closed nitrogen loop. Using
the natural gas in the first loop improves the efficiency when compared with a dual
nitrogen loop.

This liquefaction system has a design capacity of 1mmtpa per train, although this will
depend on several parameters such as the feed gas composition, cooling water
temperature, ambient conditions, etc.

5 Hulls

IHI’s SPB System

The Self-Supporting Prismatic Shape IMO Type-B (SPB) cargo containment system
uses a stiffened plate structure of either thick aluminium or 9% nickel steel to hold LNG.
This design gives the tanks the same strength against inner and outer pressure, an
advantage over the Moss and Membrane types, which are comparatively weak against
outer pressure and require differential pressure control.

The tanks subdivide into four sections by a liquid-tight bulkhead. This means that the
natural frequency of the cargo is very different from that of the motion of the ship, and so
eliminates any chance of resonance between the cargo and the vessel. Sloshing is
therefore not a problem, which allows for the partial loading of the vessel – making it
ideal for applications such as floating production. The tank insulation, unlike the
membrane system, does not need to bear liquid pressure on the tanks and so the best
insulating material can be chosen to minimise the boil-off rate.

IHI completed the SPB design in 1985, and the first two SPB vessels, Polar Eagle and
Arctic Sun, emerged eight years later. Flex LNG’s LNG Producers will use this
containment system.

The diagram opposite shows the layout of an IHI LNG carrier, and this highlights some
other advantages of the containment system. Firstly, due to the aforementioned strength
of the tanks, they can shape to follow the form of the hull. This allows for an optimised
hull design and therefore reduced fuel costs. A flat upper deck is another feature of this
design, giving advantages such as easier maintenance of piping and equipment on
deck, good visibility and small windage area. While the design of the LNG FPSO differs
slightly from that of an LNG carrier (see Chapter 9 – Case Studies for Flex LNG’s LNG
Producer design) the advantages such as the flat deck mentioned previously become
more important.

9 Case Studies

9.1 Prelude FPSO, Timor Sea

Project Overview
The Prelude gas field is in Block WA-371-P 400km off the north-west Australian coast in
waters between 200 and 300m in depth. The field lies in the Caswell Sub-basin of the
larger Browse Basin, and is adjacent to the giant Icthys/Brewster gas field. Prelude is
estimated to have reserves of between 2 and 3Tcf of recoverable gas. Shell projects in
the Browse Basin (such as the Crux field) thus have a total potential resource of 9Tcf.

Work in the block started in 2006 and includes reprocessing of pre-acquired seismic
exploration data and the drilling of 12 wells. The Prelude discovery was made in 2007 by
the semi-submersible drilling rig Ocean Epoch. This rig departed the area in early 2008
and was replaced by the deep-water drillship Frontier Discoverer.

Design Concepts
In July 2008, Shell issued a tender offer for contractors to build its own design-one-build
many LNG FPSO which would be used on the Prelude field offshore Australia. In July
2009 this contract was awarded to Technip and Samsung Heavy Industries. The vessel
is due onstream in 2016.

The FLNG concept involves a floating gas production and liquefaction facility, mounted
on a 450m long and 70m wide vessel. The nameplate capacity of the vessel will be
3.6mmtpa of LNG, 1.3mmtpa of condensate and 0.4mmtpa of LPG.

Containment System
The containment system selected was the Mark III membrane-type. However, Shell will
utilise a double-row arrangement to reduce potential sloshing damage. This containment
system is further discussed in Chapter 5 – Hulls.

Liquefaction process technology
The vessel will utilise Shell’s mixed refrigerant technology which is already in use at the
Sakhalin II terminal in Russia. However, the plant will only be one fifth of its onshore
equivalent.

Disclaimer
All Rights Reserved.

By purchasing this document, your organisation agrees that it will not copy or allow to be
copied in part or whole or otherwise circulated in any form any of the contents without
the written permission of the publishers. Additional copies of this study may be purchased
at a specially discounted rate.

The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate, but no representation
or warranty, express or implied, is made by the publisher as to the completeness, accuracy
or fairness of any information contained in it and we do not accept any responsibility in
relation to such information whether fact, opinion or conclusion that the reader may draw.
The views expressed are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent
those of the publishers.

To order this report, please send an email to mail@worldoils.com

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The World FLNG Market Report 2011 - 2017
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace    Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace

Equipment ID   : 914
Equipment name   : The World FLNG Market Report 2011 - 2017
Category   : Research Reports
Specifications   : Name of the Report :
The World FLNG Market Report 2011 - 2017

Contents

1 Executive Summary and Conclusions.....15

2 The LNG Industry .........23
2.1 Liquefied Natural Gas ........24
2.2 Chemical Properties of LNG .....24
2.3 The LNG Chain – Onshore & FLNG Comparison ..........25
2.4 Continuing Growth of the LNG Industry .......27

3 Why Floating LNG? .........29
3.1 Increasing Long-Term Gas Demand ..........30
3.2 Gas Supply .........31
3.3 Onshore vs Offshore .........34
3.4 Stranded Gas Fields .........35
3.5 Environment Issues ..........36
3.6 Security Issues ..........36
3.7 Political Issues ..............37
3.8 Complimentary Technology .............38
3.9 The History of FLNG ........39
3.10 FLNG Focus Areas .........40

4 Topsides .........41
4.1 Liquefaction Processes .........42
4.2 Liquefaction Technology ..........45
4.3 Regasification Processes ..........52

5 Hulls ..........55
5.1 Hull design concepts .........56
5.2 Containment Systems .........59
5.3 Shipyard Review ..........65
5.4 Conversions versus Newbuilds .........67

6 Moorings and Transfer Systems .........69
6.1 Mooring Systems ..........70
6.2 Offloading Systems ..........73

7 FLNG Companies .........79
7.1 Operators – ConocoPhillips ........80
7.2 Operators – Gasol ..........81
7.3 Operators – GDF Suez ..........81
7.4 Operators – Inpex Corporation .........82
7.5 Operators – Petrobras ..........83
7.6 Operators – Petronas ..........83
7.7 Operators – PTT PLC .........84
7.8 Operators – Shell ........85
7.9 Independent Service Providers – Aker Solutions .......85
7.10 Independent Service Providers – BW Offshore .......86
7.11 Independent Service Providers – Excelerate Energy ......87
7.12 Independent Service Providers – Golar LNG ......88
7.13 Independent Service Providers – Flex LNG .......89
7.14 Independent Service Providers – Höegh LNG ........90
7.15 Independent Service Providers – Saipem ........92
7.16 Independent Service Providers – SBM Offshore ..........92
7.17 Independent Service Providers – Sevan Marine ........94
7.18 Independent Service Providers – Technip .......94
7.19 Independent Service Providers – Teekay Corporation .........95
7.20 Independent Service Providers – TORP LNG ......96

8 Global Overview of FLNG Activity .......99
8.1 Global Overview of FLNG Prospects ........100
8.2 Africa .......101
8.3 Asia ..........102
8.4 Australasia ..........105
8.5 Eastern Europe and FSU.........107
8.6 Latin America ........108
8.7 Middle East.......111
8.8 North America .............112
8.9 Western Europe ...........114

9 Case Studies ............117
9.1 Prelude FPSO, Timor Sea ..........118
9.2 Pecém and Guanabara Bay FSRU, Brazil .......120
9.3 Gulf Gateway Energy Bridge, USA ........121
9.4 Teesside GasPort, UK ..........123

10 Market Forecast .......125
10.1 Introduction ..........126
10.2 The Forecasting Process ..........126
10.3 Pricing Procedures ........127
10.4 Capex Breakdowns .........127
10.5 Liquefaction Terminals .........129
10.6 Import Terminals ...........131
10.7 Forecast by Regions ..........133
10.8 The Global FLNG Market by Component ......137
10.9 The Global FLNG Market by Service ..........137
10.10 The Global FLNG Market by Facility Type ........138
10.11 The Global FLNG Market by Region .........139

11 Appendices .........141
11.1 Conversion Tables .........142

Figures

Figure 1: Prospective Additions to LNG Output ........17
Figure 2: Report Edition Comparisons – FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Expenditure ....... 19
Figure 3: Report Edition Comparisons – FLNG Import Terminal Expenditure.......19
Figure 4: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Type 2006-2017 ..........20
Figure 5: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Region 2006-2017 .........20
Figure 6: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Service 2006-2017 ...........21
Figure 7: The LNG Chain ........25
Figure 8: Historical Development of the LNG Industry ..........27
Figure 9: LNG Imports by Region 1995-2009 .........27
Figure 10: LNG Trade Movements in 2009 ........28
Figure 11: Gas Consumption by Region 1995-2030 ........30
Figure 12: Global Oil Supply 1930-2025 ..........30
Figure 13: Global Gas Production 1930-2025 ........31
Figure 14: US Crude Price vs. Gas Price Forecast .........32
Figure 15: Natural Gas Production and Consumption in the USA ......33
Figure 16: Natural Gas Imports in the USA.........33
Figure 17: Onshore vs. Offshore Liquefaction Terminal Capex .......34
Figure 18: Onshore vs. Offshore Liquefaction Terminals Total Costs ........34
Figure 19: Stranded Gas Fields with Resources between 0.3-1.5 Tcf by Region ......35
Figure 20: Estimated Distribution of Offshore Gas Fields (Logarithmic scale).......35
Figure 21: Floating Barrier Test ...........36
Figure 22: Greater Sunrise Field ........37
Figure 23: A Typical Subsea Layout .......38
Figure 24: FLNG Map and Timeline .......39
Figure 25: FLNG Focus Areas .........40
Figure 26: LNG FPSO Process Diagram ........44
Figure 27: Comparison Between Different Liquefaction Processes ......45
Figure 28: Nitrogen Expander Liquefaction Process .........45
Figure 29: Mustang LNG Smart™ Dual Nitrogen Liquefaction Process ......46
Figure 30: NicheLNGsm Liquefaction Technology ......46
Figure 31: Proteus LNG Process ........47
Figure 32: Proteus LNG FLNG Vessel ......47
Figure 33: Single Mixed Refrigerant Process.......48
Figure 34: Propane Pre-Cooled Mixed refrigerant Process ........49
Figure 35: Pure Refrigerant Cascade Process .......50
Figure 36: ConocoPhillips Optimised Cascade Process .........50
Figure 37: Statoil-Linde Mixed Fluid Cascade Process .......51
Figure 38: Dual Mixed Refrigerant Process ........51
Figure 39: Regasification Process Schematic ........52
Figure 40: Side and Front Schematic of the Sea Water Vapouriser (Open-loop).......53
Figure 41: Submerged Combustion Vapouriser (Closed Loop) .......53
Figure 42: Sevan Marine’s SSP as an LNG FPSO .......57
Figure 43: Technip's Semi-Submersible FLNG Design .......58
Figure 44: LEFT-Membrane Tank. RIGHT Hanjin Pyeongtaek carrier .......59
Figure 45: Sloshing Inside a Tank ......60
Figure 46: Single and Double Row Membrane System .......60
Figure 47: Spherical LNG Tank ........61
Figure 48: Typical Moss Layout .....61
Figure 49: IHI SPB Tank ......62
Figure 50: LNG Carrier Layout .......62
Figure 51: Hull Section of an LNG Carrier with ADBT Tank .......63
Figure 52: Double Wall Panel ........63
Figure 53: ACT-IB Containment System .......64
Figure 54: Sevan Marine Containment System .......64
Figure 55: Mustang LNG FPSO with Horizontal Tanks (exposed top left) ....... 65
Figure 56: Age of Hulls of Current LNG Carrier Fleet ......67
Figure 57: Conventional Spread Mooring .......70
Figure 58: A Swivel Stack by Bluewater .....71
Figure 59: External Turret on FLNG Concept .......72
Figure 60: Energy Bridge-Cutaway Showing Internal Turret .....72
Figure 61: Side by Side Offloading via Loading Arms .........73
Figure 62: DCMA-S Loading Arm ........73
Figure 63: Side by Side Mooring .....74
Figure 64: Teesside ship-to-ship .......74
Figure 65: Tandem Offloading via Aerial or Floating Hoses ....75
Figure 66: BTT System ......75
Figure 67: SBM SYMO System ......75
Figure 68: Ship to Shore Offloading ......76
Figure 69: APL'S STL Buoy .......76
Figure 70: Technip Flexi-Quay .........77
Figure 71: Bluewater Big Sweep ........77
Figure 72: Fixed Platform ........77
Figure 73: TOP: Location of Masela Block BOTTOM: Layout of LNG FPSO.....82
Figure 74: Nnwa/Doro FLNG Concept .........86
Figure 75: Moss Type FPSO Concept .........87
Figure 76: Excelerate Energy’s Energy Bridge Liquefaction Vessel .......88
Figure 77: Golar LNG’s FSRU Design .......89
Figure 78: Flex LNG Producer .........90
Figure 79: Höegh LNG’s Deep Water Port........91
Figure 80: Höegh LNG FPSO .......91
Figure 81: SBM Offshore's LNG FPSO Design ......93
Figure 82: LEFT: Converted FSRU RIGHT: Fixed Platform Regas Unit ....93
Figure 83: Technip's LNG FPSO Design .....95
Figure 84:Teekay’s Newbuild LNG FPSO Design .....96
Figure 85: TORP Techology Hiload Regas Units with LNG Carrier ......97
Figure 86: TORP Technology Hiload Regas Unit .......97
Figure 87: Prospective Additions to FLNG Liquefaction Capacity 2011-2017.....100
Figure 88: Prospective Additions to FLNG Import Capacity 2011-2017 ......100
Figure 89: Ocean Epoch ......118
Figure 90: Shell's FLNG Concept......118
Figure 91: LNG Carrier alongside Shell LNG FPSO ......119
Figure 92: The Golar Spirit .......120
Figure 93: Pecém LNG Pier ........120
Figure 94: Pecém LNG pier during construction ........120
Figure 95: The Excelsior Energy Bridge regasification vessel .......121
Figure 96: Excelsior EBRV ..........123
Figure 97: Different components of an FLNG vessel .......27
Figure 98:Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Region 2006-2017 ..... 129
Figure 99: Regional Share of Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals 2011-2017.......129
Figure 100: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Component 2006-2017......130
Figure 101: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Service 2006-2017......130
Figure 102: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Region 2006-2017 ........... 131
Figure 103: Regional Share of Capex on FLNG Import Terminals 2006-2017.....131
Figure 104: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Component 2006-2017.....132
Figure 105: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Service 2006-2017 .......132
Figure 106: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Africa by Type 2006-2017 ......133
Figure 107: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Asia by Type 2006-2017 .......133
Figure 108: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Australasia by Type 2006-2017 ..... 134
Figure 109: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Eastern Europe & FSU by Type 2006-2017 .....134
Figure 110: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Latin America by Type 2006-2017......135
Figure 111: Capex on FLNG Facilities in the Middle East by Type 2006-2017......135
Figure 112: Capex on FLNG Facilities in North America by Type 2006-2017......136
Figure 113: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Western Europe by Type 2006-2017.......136
Figure 114: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Component 2006-2017 ...... 137
Figure 115: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Service 2006-2017.......137
Figure 116: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Type 2006-2017 ........138
Figure 117: Global Capex Share on FLNG Facilities by Type 2011-2017...... 138
Figure 118: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Region 2006-2017........ 139
Figure 119: Global Capex Share on FLNG Facilities by Region 2011-2017......139

Tables

Table 1: Differences between Announced and Forecast Units/Capacity (mmtpa)......18
Table 2: Changes since the Previous Edition – Liquefaction .......19
Table 3: Changes since the Previous Edition – Import .........19
Table 4: Example of LNG Composition between Alaska and Algeria .......24
Table 5: World's Top Ten Countries for Proven Gas Reserves .......31
Table 6: Pacific Basin LNG Imports 2008-2015 ......32
Table 7: Estimated Flared Volumes from Satellite Data .....36
Table 8: Table of Typical Natural Gas Composition .......42
Table 9: FLNG Concepts by Liquefaction Processes .......43
Table 10: LNG Carrier Construction - Annual Shipyard Capacity .......65
Table 11: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in Africa .......101
Table 12: FLNG Liquefaction Prospects in Asia .........102
Table 13: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in Asia .........102
Table 14: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in Australasia ......105
Table 15: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in Latin America ......108
Table 16: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in Latin America .........108
Table 17: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in Latin America .......108
Table 18: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in the Middle East ........111
Table 19: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in the Middle East .........111
Table 20: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in the Middle East...........111
Table 21: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in North America ..........112
Table 22: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in North America .........112
Table 23: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in Western Europe .......114
Table 24: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in Western Europe .......114
Table 25: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Region 2006-2017......129
Table 26: FLNG Liquefaction Capacity Coming Onstream 2006-2017 ..........129
Table 27: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Component 2006-2017........130
Table 28: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Service 2006-2017.......130
Table 29: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Region 2006-2017 ..........131
Table 30: FLNG Import Capacity Coming Onstream 2006-2017 .........131
Table 31: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Component 2006-2017.......132
Table 32: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Service 2006-2017 .............. 132
Table 33: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Africa by Type 2006-2017 ................. 133
Table 34: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Asia by Type 2006-2017 ................... 133
Table 35: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Australasia by Type 2006-2017 ........ 134
Table 36: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Eastern Europe & FSU by Type 2006-2017......134
Table 37: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Latin America by Type 2006-2017......135
Table 38: Capex on FLNG Facilities in the Middle East by Type 2006-2017......135
Table 39: Capex on FLNG Facilities in North America by Type 2006-2017.......136
Table 40: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Western Europe by Type 2006-2017.....136
Table 41: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Component 2006-2017......137
Table 42: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Service 2006-2017 ........137
Table 43: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Type 2006-2017 .........138
Table 44: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Region 2006-2017 .......139
Table 45: Conversion Table ........142

3 Why Floating LNG?

Asian Demand
Global recession in 2008/2009 lowered demand for LNG, particularly in the major import
countries such as Japan and South Korea in the Pacific basin. However, long-term
demand for natural gas and therefore LNG remains strong in these countries and
therefore it is forecast that LNG imports will return to 2008 levels by 2011. Beyond this,
high long-term economic growth in countries such as China and India will drive LNG
demand upwards in this region.

China is currently building a number of new LNG terminals along its coast to meet this
future demand. While most of the Chinese projects are located onshore, as inexpensive
land and labour is available, CNOOC has expressed an interest in developing a floating
offshore project in the future.

India is another country with many onshore LNG developments on the drawing board.
However, many of these projects have seen continuous delays in sanctioning and
construction. In June 2009 New Mangalore Port Trust announced its intentions to build
an offshore facility in the port city which would be the first FLNG terminal in the country.

USA Gas Prices
Gas prices in the USA tracked the oil price through the peak and decline in 2008. Since
then, the two lines have diverged as gas prices have not yet rebounded to match the
recent increase in crude prices. While the oil supply has seen OPEC production cuts and
falling output from non-OPEC countries, the global gas supply has remained
comparatively buoyant. The LNG industry in particular has seen falling short-term
demand and rising supply through the completion of large-scale terminal projects in
Qatar and Russia.

Lower gas prices in the USA and other areas have caused many LNG projects to suffer
delays in final sanctioning as companies struggled to find financing. These delays are
likely, along with long-term gas demand increases, to result in increased gas prices over
the next decade as the market moves from a supply to a demand surplus. This will drive
the building of new LNG terminals both onshore and offshore. However, it is worth noting
that gas supply contracts in Asian countries are primarily linked to crude prices rather
than gas prices.

4 Topsides

Kanfa Aragon, a process engineering company owned by Sevan Marine, has developed
their own nitrogen expander system – the Aragon HMC Cycle – which aims to increase
the process efficiency of the original system by as much as 50%. Kanfa Aragon has
agreed to supply liquefaction topsides to Flex LNG for their first LNG FPSO.

Mustang LNG Smart
Mustang has developed a nitrogen expander liquefaction process (NDX-1) for FLNG
applications that uses two loops. These two nitrogen streams are cooled in the main
plate fin exchanger.

Mustang believes that their NDX-1 dual nitrogen process can offer thermal efficiency of
between 91% and 93%.

This liquefaction technology has been selected by Petronas for use on its planned
floater, by Gasol for its Near-Shore LNG Production System and by Teekay for its
generic LNG FPSO design.

Niche Liquefaction Process
Niche Dual expansion being developed by CB&I Lummus is similar to the dual
nitrogen process, however the first loop consists of an open loop where the refrigerant is
the natural gas itself (mostly methane). The second loop is a closed nitrogen loop. Using
the natural gas in the first loop improves the efficiency when compared with a dual
nitrogen loop.

This liquefaction system has a design capacity of 1mmtpa per train, although this will
depend on several parameters such as the feed gas composition, cooling water
temperature, ambient conditions, etc.

5 Hulls

IHI’s SPB System

The Self-Supporting Prismatic Shape IMO Type-B (SPB) cargo containment system
uses a stiffened plate structure of either thick aluminium or 9% nickel steel to hold LNG.
This design gives the tanks the same strength against inner and outer pressure, an
advantage over the Moss and Membrane types, which are comparatively weak against
outer pressure and require differential pressure control.

The tanks subdivide into four sections by a liquid-tight bulkhead. This means that the
natural frequency of the cargo is very different from that of the motion of the ship, and so
eliminates any chance of resonance between the cargo and the vessel. Sloshing is
therefore not a problem, which allows for the partial loading of the vessel – making it
ideal for applications such as floating production. The tank insulation, unlike the
membrane system, does not need to bear liquid pressure on the tanks and so the best
insulating material can be chosen to minimise the boil-off rate.

IHI completed the SPB design in 1985, and the first two SPB vessels, Polar Eagle and
Arctic Sun, emerged eight years later. Flex LNG’s LNG Producers will use this
containment system.

The diagram opposite shows the layout of an IHI LNG carrier, and this highlights some
other advantages of the containment system. Firstly, due to the aforementioned strength
of the tanks, they can shape to follow the form of the hull. This allows for an optimised
hull design and therefore reduced fuel costs. A flat upper deck is another feature of this
design, giving advantages such as easier maintenance of piping and equipment on
deck, good visibility and small windage area. While the design of the LNG FPSO differs
slightly from that of an LNG carrier (see Chapter 9 – Case Studies for Flex LNG’s LNG
Producer design) the advantages such as the flat deck mentioned previously become
more important.

9 Case Studies

9.1 Prelude FPSO, Timor Sea

Project Overview
The Prelude gas field is in Block WA-371-P 400km off the north-west Australian coast in
waters between 200 and 300m in depth. The field lies in the Caswell Sub-basin of the
larger Browse Basin, and is adjacent to the giant Icthys/Brewster gas field. Prelude is
estimated to have reserves of between 2 and 3Tcf of recoverable gas. Shell projects in
the Browse Basin (such as the Crux field) thus have a total potential resource of 9Tcf.

Work in the block started in 2006 and includes reprocessing of pre-acquired seismic
exploration data and the drilling of 12 wells. The Prelude discovery was made in 2007 by
the semi-submersible drilling rig Ocean Epoch. This rig departed the area in early 2008
and was replaced by the deep-water drillship Frontier Discoverer.

Design Concepts
In July 2008, Shell issued a tender offer for contractors to build its own design-one-build
many LNG FPSO which would be used on the Prelude field offshore Australia. In July
2009 this contract was awarded to Technip and Samsung Heavy Industries. The vessel
is due onstream in 2016.

The FLNG concept involves a floating gas production and liquefaction facility, mounted
on a 450m long and 70m wide vessel. The nameplate capacity of the vessel will be
3.6mmtpa of LNG, 1.3mmtpa of condensate and 0.4mmtpa of LPG.

Containment System
The containment system selected was the Mark III membrane-type. However, Shell will
utilise a double-row arrangement to reduce potential sloshing damage. This containment
system is further discussed in Chapter 5 – Hulls.

Liquefaction process technology
The vessel will utilise Shell’s mixed refrigerant technology which is already in use at the
Sakhalin II terminal in Russia. However, the plant will only be one fifth of its onshore
equivalent.

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The World FLNG Market Report 2011 - 2017
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Equipment ID   : 914
Equipment name   : The World FLNG Market Report 2011 - 2017
Category   : Research Reports
 
Specifications  :
Name of the Report :
The World FLNG Market Report 2011 - 2017

Contents

1 Executive Summary and Conclusions.....15

2 The LNG Industry .........23
2.1 Liquefied Natural Gas ........24
2.2 Chemical Properties of LNG .....24
2.3 The LNG Chain – Onshore & FLNG Comparison ..........25
2.4 Continuing Growth of the LNG Industry .......27

3 Why Floating LNG? .........29
3.1 Increasing Long-Term Gas Demand ..........30
3.2 Gas Supply .........31
3.3 Onshore vs Offshore .........34
3.4 Stranded Gas Fields .........35
3.5 Environment Issues ..........36
3.6 Security Issues ..........36
3.7 Political Issues ..............37
3.8 Complimentary Technology .............38
3.9 The History of FLNG ........39
3.10 FLNG Focus Areas .........40

4 Topsides .........41
4.1 Liquefaction Processes .........42
4.2 Liquefaction Technology ..........45
4.3 Regasification Processes ..........52

5 Hulls ..........55
5.1 Hull design concepts .........56
5.2 Containment Systems .........59
5.3 Shipyard Review ..........65
5.4 Conversions versus Newbuilds .........67

6 Moorings and Transfer Systems .........69
6.1 Mooring Systems ..........70
6.2 Offloading Systems ..........73

7 FLNG Companies .........79
7.1 Operators – ConocoPhillips ........80
7.2 Operators – Gasol ..........81
7.3 Operators – GDF Suez ..........81
7.4 Operators – Inpex Corporation .........82
7.5 Operators – Petrobras ..........83
7.6 Operators – Petronas ..........83
7.7 Operators – PTT PLC .........84
7.8 Operators – Shell ........85
7.9 Independent Service Providers – Aker Solutions .......85
7.10 Independent Service Providers – BW Offshore .......86
7.11 Independent Service Providers – Excelerate Energy ......87
7.12 Independent Service Providers – Golar LNG ......88
7.13 Independent Service Providers – Flex LNG .......89
7.14 Independent Service Providers – Höegh LNG ........90
7.15 Independent Service Providers – Saipem ........92
7.16 Independent Service Providers – SBM Offshore ..........92
7.17 Independent Service Providers – Sevan Marine ........94
7.18 Independent Service Providers – Technip .......94
7.19 Independent Service Providers – Teekay Corporation .........95
7.20 Independent Service Providers – TORP LNG ......96

8 Global Overview of FLNG Activity .......99
8.1 Global Overview of FLNG Prospects ........100
8.2 Africa .......101
8.3 Asia ..........102
8.4 Australasia ..........105
8.5 Eastern Europe and FSU.........107
8.6 Latin America ........108
8.7 Middle East.......111
8.8 North America .............112
8.9 Western Europe ...........114

9 Case Studies ............117
9.1 Prelude FPSO, Timor Sea ..........118
9.2 Pecém and Guanabara Bay FSRU, Brazil .......120
9.3 Gulf Gateway Energy Bridge, USA ........121
9.4 Teesside GasPort, UK ..........123

10 Market Forecast .......125
10.1 Introduction ..........126
10.2 The Forecasting Process ..........126
10.3 Pricing Procedures ........127
10.4 Capex Breakdowns .........127
10.5 Liquefaction Terminals .........129
10.6 Import Terminals ...........131
10.7 Forecast by Regions ..........133
10.8 The Global FLNG Market by Component ......137
10.9 The Global FLNG Market by Service ..........137
10.10 The Global FLNG Market by Facility Type ........138
10.11 The Global FLNG Market by Region .........139

11 Appendices .........141
11.1 Conversion Tables .........142

Figures

Figure 1: Prospective Additions to LNG Output ........17
Figure 2: Report Edition Comparisons – FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Expenditure ....... 19
Figure 3: Report Edition Comparisons – FLNG Import Terminal Expenditure.......19
Figure 4: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Type 2006-2017 ..........20
Figure 5: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Region 2006-2017 .........20
Figure 6: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Service 2006-2017 ...........21
Figure 7: The LNG Chain ........25
Figure 8: Historical Development of the LNG Industry ..........27
Figure 9: LNG Imports by Region 1995-2009 .........27
Figure 10: LNG Trade Movements in 2009 ........28
Figure 11: Gas Consumption by Region 1995-2030 ........30
Figure 12: Global Oil Supply 1930-2025 ..........30
Figure 13: Global Gas Production 1930-2025 ........31
Figure 14: US Crude Price vs. Gas Price Forecast .........32
Figure 15: Natural Gas Production and Consumption in the USA ......33
Figure 16: Natural Gas Imports in the USA.........33
Figure 17: Onshore vs. Offshore Liquefaction Terminal Capex .......34
Figure 18: Onshore vs. Offshore Liquefaction Terminals Total Costs ........34
Figure 19: Stranded Gas Fields with Resources between 0.3-1.5 Tcf by Region ......35
Figure 20: Estimated Distribution of Offshore Gas Fields (Logarithmic scale).......35
Figure 21: Floating Barrier Test ...........36
Figure 22: Greater Sunrise Field ........37
Figure 23: A Typical Subsea Layout .......38
Figure 24: FLNG Map and Timeline .......39
Figure 25: FLNG Focus Areas .........40
Figure 26: LNG FPSO Process Diagram ........44
Figure 27: Comparison Between Different Liquefaction Processes ......45
Figure 28: Nitrogen Expander Liquefaction Process .........45
Figure 29: Mustang LNG Smart™ Dual Nitrogen Liquefaction Process ......46
Figure 30: NicheLNGsm Liquefaction Technology ......46
Figure 31: Proteus LNG Process ........47
Figure 32: Proteus LNG FLNG Vessel ......47
Figure 33: Single Mixed Refrigerant Process.......48
Figure 34: Propane Pre-Cooled Mixed refrigerant Process ........49
Figure 35: Pure Refrigerant Cascade Process .......50
Figure 36: ConocoPhillips Optimised Cascade Process .........50
Figure 37: Statoil-Linde Mixed Fluid Cascade Process .......51
Figure 38: Dual Mixed Refrigerant Process ........51
Figure 39: Regasification Process Schematic ........52
Figure 40: Side and Front Schematic of the Sea Water Vapouriser (Open-loop).......53
Figure 41: Submerged Combustion Vapouriser (Closed Loop) .......53
Figure 42: Sevan Marine’s SSP as an LNG FPSO .......57
Figure 43: Technip's Semi-Submersible FLNG Design .......58
Figure 44: LEFT-Membrane Tank. RIGHT Hanjin Pyeongtaek carrier .......59
Figure 45: Sloshing Inside a Tank ......60
Figure 46: Single and Double Row Membrane System .......60
Figure 47: Spherical LNG Tank ........61
Figure 48: Typical Moss Layout .....61
Figure 49: IHI SPB Tank ......62
Figure 50: LNG Carrier Layout .......62
Figure 51: Hull Section of an LNG Carrier with ADBT Tank .......63
Figure 52: Double Wall Panel ........63
Figure 53: ACT-IB Containment System .......64
Figure 54: Sevan Marine Containment System .......64
Figure 55: Mustang LNG FPSO with Horizontal Tanks (exposed top left) ....... 65
Figure 56: Age of Hulls of Current LNG Carrier Fleet ......67
Figure 57: Conventional Spread Mooring .......70
Figure 58: A Swivel Stack by Bluewater .....71
Figure 59: External Turret on FLNG Concept .......72
Figure 60: Energy Bridge-Cutaway Showing Internal Turret .....72
Figure 61: Side by Side Offloading via Loading Arms .........73
Figure 62: DCMA-S Loading Arm ........73
Figure 63: Side by Side Mooring .....74
Figure 64: Teesside ship-to-ship .......74
Figure 65: Tandem Offloading via Aerial or Floating Hoses ....75
Figure 66: BTT System ......75
Figure 67: SBM SYMO System ......75
Figure 68: Ship to Shore Offloading ......76
Figure 69: APL'S STL Buoy .......76
Figure 70: Technip Flexi-Quay .........77
Figure 71: Bluewater Big Sweep ........77
Figure 72: Fixed Platform ........77
Figure 73: TOP: Location of Masela Block BOTTOM: Layout of LNG FPSO.....82
Figure 74: Nnwa/Doro FLNG Concept .........86
Figure 75: Moss Type FPSO Concept .........87
Figure 76: Excelerate Energy’s Energy Bridge Liquefaction Vessel .......88
Figure 77: Golar LNG’s FSRU Design .......89
Figure 78: Flex LNG Producer .........90
Figure 79: Höegh LNG’s Deep Water Port........91
Figure 80: Höegh LNG FPSO .......91
Figure 81: SBM Offshore's LNG FPSO Design ......93
Figure 82: LEFT: Converted FSRU RIGHT: Fixed Platform Regas Unit ....93
Figure 83: Technip's LNG FPSO Design .....95
Figure 84:Teekay’s Newbuild LNG FPSO Design .....96
Figure 85: TORP Techology Hiload Regas Units with LNG Carrier ......97
Figure 86: TORP Technology Hiload Regas Unit .......97
Figure 87: Prospective Additions to FLNG Liquefaction Capacity 2011-2017.....100
Figure 88: Prospective Additions to FLNG Import Capacity 2011-2017 ......100
Figure 89: Ocean Epoch ......118
Figure 90: Shell's FLNG Concept......118
Figure 91: LNG Carrier alongside Shell LNG FPSO ......119
Figure 92: The Golar Spirit .......120
Figure 93: Pecém LNG Pier ........120
Figure 94: Pecém LNG pier during construction ........120
Figure 95: The Excelsior Energy Bridge regasification vessel .......121
Figure 96: Excelsior EBRV ..........123
Figure 97: Different components of an FLNG vessel .......27
Figure 98:Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Region 2006-2017 ..... 129
Figure 99: Regional Share of Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals 2011-2017.......129
Figure 100: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Component 2006-2017......130
Figure 101: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Service 2006-2017......130
Figure 102: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Region 2006-2017 ........... 131
Figure 103: Regional Share of Capex on FLNG Import Terminals 2006-2017.....131
Figure 104: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Component 2006-2017.....132
Figure 105: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Service 2006-2017 .......132
Figure 106: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Africa by Type 2006-2017 ......133
Figure 107: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Asia by Type 2006-2017 .......133
Figure 108: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Australasia by Type 2006-2017 ..... 134
Figure 109: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Eastern Europe & FSU by Type 2006-2017 .....134
Figure 110: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Latin America by Type 2006-2017......135
Figure 111: Capex on FLNG Facilities in the Middle East by Type 2006-2017......135
Figure 112: Capex on FLNG Facilities in North America by Type 2006-2017......136
Figure 113: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Western Europe by Type 2006-2017.......136
Figure 114: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Component 2006-2017 ...... 137
Figure 115: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Service 2006-2017.......137
Figure 116: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Type 2006-2017 ........138
Figure 117: Global Capex Share on FLNG Facilities by Type 2011-2017...... 138
Figure 118: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Region 2006-2017........ 139
Figure 119: Global Capex Share on FLNG Facilities by Region 2011-2017......139

Tables

Table 1: Differences between Announced and Forecast Units/Capacity (mmtpa)......18
Table 2: Changes since the Previous Edition – Liquefaction .......19
Table 3: Changes since the Previous Edition – Import .........19
Table 4: Example of LNG Composition between Alaska and Algeria .......24
Table 5: World's Top Ten Countries for Proven Gas Reserves .......31
Table 6: Pacific Basin LNG Imports 2008-2015 ......32
Table 7: Estimated Flared Volumes from Satellite Data .....36
Table 8: Table of Typical Natural Gas Composition .......42
Table 9: FLNG Concepts by Liquefaction Processes .......43
Table 10: LNG Carrier Construction - Annual Shipyard Capacity .......65
Table 11: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in Africa .......101
Table 12: FLNG Liquefaction Prospects in Asia .........102
Table 13: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in Asia .........102
Table 14: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in Australasia ......105
Table 15: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in Latin America ......108
Table 16: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in Latin America .........108
Table 17: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in Latin America .......108
Table 18: FLNG Liquefaction Terminal Prospects in the Middle East ........111
Table 19: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in the Middle East .........111
Table 20: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in the Middle East...........111
Table 21: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in North America ..........112
Table 22: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in North America .........112
Table 23: FLNG Import Terminals in Operation in Western Europe .......114
Table 24: FLNG Import Terminal Prospects in Western Europe .......114
Table 25: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Region 2006-2017......129
Table 26: FLNG Liquefaction Capacity Coming Onstream 2006-2017 ..........129
Table 27: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Component 2006-2017........130
Table 28: Capex on FLNG Liquefaction Terminals by Service 2006-2017.......130
Table 29: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Region 2006-2017 ..........131
Table 30: FLNG Import Capacity Coming Onstream 2006-2017 .........131
Table 31: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Component 2006-2017.......132
Table 32: Capex on FLNG Import Terminals by Service 2006-2017 .............. 132
Table 33: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Africa by Type 2006-2017 ................. 133
Table 34: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Asia by Type 2006-2017 ................... 133
Table 35: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Australasia by Type 2006-2017 ........ 134
Table 36: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Eastern Europe & FSU by Type 2006-2017......134
Table 37: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Latin America by Type 2006-2017......135
Table 38: Capex on FLNG Facilities in the Middle East by Type 2006-2017......135
Table 39: Capex on FLNG Facilities in North America by Type 2006-2017.......136
Table 40: Capex on FLNG Facilities in Western Europe by Type 2006-2017.....136
Table 41: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Component 2006-2017......137
Table 42: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Service 2006-2017 ........137
Table 43: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Type 2006-2017 .........138
Table 44: Global Capex on FLNG Facilities by Region 2006-2017 .......139
Table 45: Conversion Table ........142

3 Why Floating LNG?

Asian Demand
Global recession in 2008/2009 lowered demand for LNG, particularly in the major import
countries such as Japan and South Korea in the Pacific basin. However, long-term
demand for natural gas and therefore LNG remains strong in these countries and
therefore it is forecast that LNG imports will return to 2008 levels by 2011. Beyond this,
high long-term economic growth in countries such as China and India will drive LNG
demand upwards in this region.

China is currently building a number of new LNG terminals along its coast to meet this
future demand. While most of the Chinese projects are located onshore, as inexpensive
land and labour is available, CNOOC has expressed an interest in developing a floating
offshore project in the future.

India is another country with many onshore LNG developments on the drawing board.
However, many of these projects have seen continuous delays in sanctioning and
construction. In June 2009 New Mangalore Port Trust announced its intentions to build
an offshore facility in the port city which would be the first FLNG terminal in the country.

USA Gas Prices
Gas prices in the USA tracked the oil price through the peak and decline in 2008. Since
then, the two lines have diverged as gas prices have not yet rebounded to match the
recent increase in crude prices. While the oil supply has seen OPEC production cuts and
falling output from non-OPEC countries, the global gas supply has remained
comparatively buoyant. The LNG industry in particular has seen falling short-term
demand and rising supply through the completion of large-scale terminal projects in
Qatar and Russia.

Lower gas prices in the USA and other areas have caused many LNG projects to suffer
delays in final sanctioning as companies struggled to find financing. These delays are
likely, along with long-term gas demand increases, to result in increased gas prices over
the next decade as the market moves from a supply to a demand surplus. This will drive
the building of new LNG terminals both onshore and offshore. However, it is worth noting
that gas supply contracts in Asian countries are primarily linked to crude prices rather
than gas prices.

4 Topsides

Kanfa Aragon, a process engineering company owned by Sevan Marine, has developed
their own nitrogen expander system – the Aragon HMC Cycle – which aims to increase
the process efficiency of the original system by as much as 50%. Kanfa Aragon has
agreed to supply liquefaction topsides to Flex LNG for their first LNG FPSO.

Mustang LNG Smart
Mustang has developed a nitrogen expander liquefaction process (NDX-1) for FLNG
applications that uses two loops. These two nitrogen streams are cooled in the main
plate fin exchanger.

Mustang believes that their NDX-1 dual nitrogen process can offer thermal efficiency of
between 91% and 93%.

This liquefaction technology has been selected by Petronas for use on its planned
floater, by Gasol for its Near-Shore LNG Production System and by Teekay for its
generic LNG FPSO design.

Niche Liquefaction Process
Niche Dual expansion being developed by CB&I Lummus is similar to the dual
nitrogen process, however the first loop consists of an open loop where the refrigerant is
the natural gas itself (mostly methane). The second loop is a closed nitrogen loop. Using
the natural gas in the first loop improves the efficiency when compared with a dual
nitrogen loop.

This liquefaction system has a design capacity of 1mmtpa per train, although this will
depend on several parameters such as the feed gas composition, cooling water
temperature, ambient conditions, etc.

5 Hulls

IHI’s SPB System

The Self-Supporting Prismatic Shape IMO Type-B (SPB) cargo containment system
uses a stiffened plate structure of either thick aluminium or 9% nickel steel to hold LNG.
This design gives the tanks the same strength against inner and outer pressure, an
advantage over the Moss and Membrane types, which are comparatively weak against
outer pressure and require differential pressure control.

The tanks subdivide into four sections by a liquid-tight bulkhead. This means that the
natural frequency of the cargo is very different from that of the motion of the ship, and so
eliminates any chance of resonance between the cargo and the vessel. Sloshing is
therefore not a problem, which allows for the partial loading of the vessel – making it
ideal for applications such as floating production. The tank insulation, unlike the
membrane system, does not need to bear liquid pressure on the tanks and so the best
insulating material can be chosen to minimise the boil-off rate.

IHI completed the SPB design in 1985, and the first two SPB vessels, Polar Eagle and
Arctic Sun, emerged eight years later. Flex LNG’s LNG Producers will use this
containment system.

The diagram opposite shows the layout of an IHI LNG carrier, and this highlights some
other advantages of the containment system. Firstly, due to the aforementioned strength
of the tanks, they can shape to follow the form of the hull. This allows for an optimised
hull design and therefore reduced fuel costs. A flat upper deck is another feature of this
design, giving advantages such as easier maintenance of piping and equipment on
deck, good visibility and small windage area. While the design of the LNG FPSO differs
slightly from that of an LNG carrier (see Chapter 9 – Case Studies for Flex LNG’s LNG
Producer design) the advantages such as the flat deck mentioned previously become
more important.

9 Case Studies

9.1 Prelude FPSO, Timor Sea

Project Overview
The Prelude gas field is in Block WA-371-P 400km off the north-west Australian coast in
waters between 200 and 300m in depth. The field lies in the Caswell Sub-basin of the
larger Browse Basin, and is adjacent to the giant Icthys/Brewster gas field. Prelude is
estimated to have reserves of between 2 and 3Tcf of recoverable gas. Shell projects in
the Browse Basin (such as the Crux field) thus have a total potential resource of 9Tcf.

Work in the block started in 2006 and includes reprocessing of pre-acquired seismic
exploration data and the drilling of 12 wells. The Prelude discovery was made in 2007 by
the semi-submersible drilling rig Ocean Epoch. This rig departed the area in early 2008
and was replaced by the deep-water drillship Frontier Discoverer.

Design Concepts
In July 2008, Shell issued a tender offer for contractors to build its own design-one-build
many LNG FPSO which would be used on the Prelude field offshore Australia. In July
2009 this contract was awarded to Technip and Samsung Heavy Industries. The vessel
is due onstream in 2016.

The FLNG concept involves a floating gas production and liquefaction facility, mounted
on a 450m long and 70m wide vessel. The nameplate capacity of the vessel will be
3.6mmtpa of LNG, 1.3mmtpa of condensate and 0.4mmtpa of LPG.

Containment System
The containment system selected was the Mark III membrane-type. However, Shell will
utilise a double-row arrangement to reduce potential sloshing damage. This containment
system is further discussed in Chapter 5 – Hulls.

Liquefaction process technology
The vessel will utilise Shell’s mixed refrigerant technology which is already in use at the
Sakhalin II terminal in Russia. However, the plant will only be one fifth of its onshore
equivalent.

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