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The World Offshore Wind Market Report 2011-2015
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace    

Equipment ID   : 916
Equipment name   : The World Offshore Wind Market Report 2011-2015
Category   : Research Reports
Specifications   : Name of the Report :
The World Offshore Wind Market Report 2011-2015

Contents

1 Executive Summary & Conclusions ........13
1.1 Introduction to the Report.........14
1.2 Executive Summary .........14
1.3 Conclusions ......16

2 Introduction .........19
2.1 Development history ..........20
2.2 Market drivers ........22
2.3 Market issues ..........27

3 Technology .......31
3.1 Turbines ........32
3.2 Foundations ........53
3.3 Cables ..........70
3.4 Substations .........81
3.5 Installation vessels ........92
3.6 Operations & Maintenance......109

4 Main Markets ..........117
4.1 UK ...........118
4.2 Germany .........125
4.3 China ........126
4.4 Belgium ...........129
4.5 Denmark ......131
4.6 Netherlands ..........133
4.7 USA .........135
4.8 South Korea ......137

5 Market Forecasts .............139
5.1 Forecasting methodology .............140
5.2 Capital expenditure ...........141
5.3 Annual installed capacity ...........142
5.4 Turbines .........144
5.5 Foundations ..........147
5.6 Cables ..........152
5.7 Substations ........156
5.8 Installation vessels ..........157
5.9 Personnel transfer vessels ........158

Figures

Figure 1: Capital Expenditure by Country 2006-2015 .....14
Figure 2: Installed Capacity by Country 2006-2015 .....15
Figure 3: Global Primary Energy Demand 1966-2009 .....25
Figure 4: Global Electricity Generation Forecast by Fuel Type 2007-2035 ...... 26
Figure 5: Nacelle of a GE 3.6MW Offshore Turbine ........32
Figure 6: Average Turbine Size 1991-2010 .........34
Figure 7: Capacity Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2010 ......37
Figure 8: Multibrid M5000 Turbine on Tripod Foundation .........38
Figure 9: BARD VM 5MW Test Turbine Nearshore Hooksiel ...... 40
Figure 10: Siemens 2.3MW Wind turbine, Offshore Lillgrund (Sweden) .......... 46
Figure 11:Repower 6M Turbine ........46
Figure 12: SL3000 being installed off Shanghai .......48
Figure 13: Diagram of GBS ..........53
Figure 14: Diagram of Monopile .........54
Figure 15: Diagram of Tripod .........54
Figure 16: Photo of Hywind ...........55
Figure 17: Aker Solutions Verdal Yard ..........58
Figure 18: The ‘Tripile’ foundation for BARD 5.0 Offshore Wind Turbine ......... 58
Figure 19: Installation of BARD Tripile Foundation .........59
Figure 20: Monopile Sections for Horns Rev II .........59
Figure 21: Arnish Yard ..........61
Figure 22: EEW-SPC facilities in Rostock.......62
Figure 23: SLP's Lowestoft Yard .........65
Figure 24: Monopiles for Greater Gabbard ...........69
Figure 25: Crane Barge Rambiz installing a Substation at Gunfleet Sands ..... 82
Figure 26: Matador 3 Lifting Substation onto Lastdrager Pontoon ............82
Figure 27: The First Robin Rigg Substation ..........85
Figure 28: Barrow Offshore Substation .........85
Figure 29:Lillgrund Substation ........87
Figure 30: Nysted Substation ...........87
Figure 31: Gunfleet Sands Substation .......87
Figure 32: Asian Hercules Installing Substation at Horns Rev ........87
Figure 33: Jacket and Transformer Module for Horns Rev II .........87
Figure 34: Load-out of the first offshore HVDC substation ........88
Figure 35: A2Sea A/S Performing Turbine Installation ........92
Figure 36: One lift of Sinovel Turbine .........93
Figure 37: A2Sea Vessels M/V Sea Energy & M/V Sea Power at Horns Rev..... 96
Figure 38: Sea Worker ........97
Figure 39: Wind Lift I ............98
Figure 40: Heavy Lift Vessel Svanen ........99
Figure 42: Beluga Hochtief Offshore Vessel Visualisation ......100
Figure 41: Jack-up Platform Odin ........100
Figure 43: Rambiz en-route to Beatrice Demonstrator site .........101
Figure 44: EIDE Performing Foundation Installation at Nysted, Denmark ...... 102
Figure 45: The Jumbo Javelin loaded with TPs .......103
Figure 46: The Resolution at Barrow, UK .........105
Figure 47: Service Jack 2 ..........106
Figure 48: Seajacks Vessel Leviathan ........107
Figure 49: The HLV Oleg Strashnov ......108
Figure 50: Ampelmann being tested .......112
Figure 51: WaterBridge .........112
Figure 52: The Offshore Access System .........113
Figure 53: Windlift Prototype ........113
Figure 54: Horns Rev II Accommodation Platform Poseidon .......115
Figure 55: UK Power Generation Supply-Demand 2006-2030 ......122
Figure 56: UK Power Generation Supply-Demand by Fuel 2008-2030 .......123
Figure 57: Capital Expenditure by Country 2006-2015 ........141
Figure 58: Installed Capacity by Country 2006-2015 ........142
Figure 59: Turbines Installed by Country 2006-2015 ........144
Figure 60: Turbines Installed by Size 2006-2015 .........144
Figure 61: Capacity Installed by Turbine Size 2006-2015 .....145
Figure 62: Turbines Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 .........145
Figure 63: Capacity Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 ......146
Figure 64: Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......147
Figure 65: Foundations Installed by Type 2006-2015 ........148
Figure 66: GBS Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......149
Figure 67: Monopile Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .....149
Figure 68: Tripod Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......150
Figure 69: Jacket Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......150
Figure 70: Capacity Installed by Foundation Type 2006-2015 .......151
Figure 71: Foundations Installed by Water Depth 2006-2015 ........151
Figure 72: Foundations Installed by Distance to Shore 2006-2015 .......152
Figure 73: Total Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 ........152
Figure 74: Total Cable Length Installed by Type 2006-2015 ........153
Figure 75: Export Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......153
Figure 76: Export Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 ......154
Figure 77: Infield Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......154
Figure 78: Infield Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 .......155
Figure 79: Substations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ........156
Figure 80: Installation Vessels Required by Type 2006-2015 .......157
Figure 81: Total PTVs Required 2006-2015 .........158
Figure 82: New PTVs Required Each Year 2006-2015 ........158

Tables

Table 1: Installed Offshore Wind Farms ..........21
Table 2: EU 2020 Requirements ..........24
Table 3: Installed Offshore Wind Farm Transformer Substations ........81
Table 4: Capital Expenditure by Country 2006-2015 .......141
Table 5: Installed Capacity by Country 2006-2015 ........142
Table 6: Turbines Installed by Country 2006-2015 ...........144
Table 7: Turbines Installed by Size 2006-2015 .........144
Table 8: Capacity Installed by Turbine Size 2006-2015 .......145
Table 9: Turbines Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 ..........146
Table 10: Capacity Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 .........146
Table 11: Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......147
Table 12: Foundations Installed by Type 2006-2015 .......148
Table 13: GBS Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015......149
Table 14: Monopile Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .....149
Table 15: Tripod Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .....150
Table 16: Jacket Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......150
Table 17: Capacity Installed by Foundation Type 2006-2015........151
Table 18: Foundations Installed by Water Depth 2006-2015.........151
Table 19: Foundations Installed by Distance to Shore 2006-2015 .....152
Table 20: Total Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015........ 153
Table 21: Total Cable Length Installed by Type 2006-2015 ...... 153
Table 22: Export Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......154
Table 23: Export Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 ......154
Table 24: Infield Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 .........155
Table 25: Infield Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 .........155
Table 26: Substations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ...........156
Table 27: Installation Vessels Required by Type 2006-2015 .........157
Table 28: Total PTVs Required 2006-2015.........158
Table 29: New PTVs Required Each Year 2006-2015 ........158

2 Introduction

Financing
Historically, offshore wind projects were almost exclusively built through balance sheet
financing. The first significant exception to this was the Princess Amalia project (formerly
known as Q7) off the Netherlands, which was completed in 2008.

The role of utility companies in project development and ownership has become defacto.
Whilst there have been some notable successes in privately developed projects,
particularly in the UK, the market is now almost fully utility driven. Utility involvement has
grown due to the increasing capital required to move projects through development and
requirements for utilities to source energy from renewable resources.

This helped a lot of recent projects to be built through the willingness of the utilities to
fund construction through their balance sheets. However, due to the high costs seen in
the industry, which hit at the same time as the global financial ‘crisis’ the willingness (or
ability) of utilities to fund projects has fallen. This has led to even the largest utility
companies seeking financing for their developments to a certain extent. An increase in
the number of utilities working together on projects has also been seen; this is especially
visible on the large UK Round 3 projects.

The financial community has become more comfortable with offshore wind, with most
projects built over the last three years having required pre-construction financing. Project
financing is also increasing in use. The development of the industry will continue to
require large amounts of private investment.

Nevertheless, the current financial climate means investors are naturally cautious. Whilst
early UK projects can demonstrate an excellent rate of return, current projects are far
from attractive, with many failing to demonstrate even a 10% rate of return. Coupled with
the high costs being seen in the industry and growing concern about the lack of cost
savings being demonstrated, the investment environment is still difficult.

The UK’s Round 3 alone could cost in excess of £100bn to build. The difference with
Round 3 is the successive nature of the phased development of Zones. Several
developers have stated the likely need to refinance phases as they are built in order to
build successive phases.

Investment banks and private equity need to have long-term vision and confidence in the
industry, whether for project financing or for investment into supply chain companies.
This can be fostered through commitment to long term offshore wind targets and market
mechanisms. There has always been an element of uncertainty in the investment
community over potential changes to market mechanisms and wider policies.

Successes are happening. In August 2010, C-Power raised €950m ($1.23bn) in loans
for its second phase of the Thornton Bank project off Belgium. It is the largest financial
package assembled to date for an offshore wind farm. The five commercial banks
involved in the financial package — Société Générale, KBC, Rabobank, Commerzbank,
Dexia and ASN — will provide up to €540m in loans and a further €350m in risk
participation. The European Investment Bank is also contributing as are the Danish and
German export-credit agencies.

The European Investment Bank’s involvement in offshore wind has been critical to
projects going ahead. The EIB is actively supporting European R&D projects as part of
EU's objective of building the world's leading knowledge-based economy and has
financed some 16 wind farm projects (completed), totalling some €35bn since 2000. In
2009, the EIB approved over €2bn in loans for the offshore wind sector. Most recently, it
has approved two £250m loans for the London Array project and €300m for the Belwind
project. Its involvement is encouraging to investors but it cannot be guaranteed into the
future.

3 Technology

Major turbine manufacturers

Areva Wind, France/Germany
Areva Wind owns Multibrid, a small German wind turbine manufacturer formerly owned
by renewable energy company Prokon Nord. The compact Multibrid turbine technology
developed in the 1990s by Aerodyn incorporates a single-stage gearbox and mid-speed
generator. Its technology is aimed at the offshore market.

In November 2003 Prokon Nord purchased Multibrid Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH,
Pfleiderer Wind Energy’s offshore wind business and with it, the Multibrid turbine
technology. Previously, in 2000, Pfleiderer had acquired the rights to the Multibrid
technology for turbines of above 3MW from Finnish manufacturer WinWind Oy.

In September 2007 Areva announced the acquisition of a 51% stake in Multibrid
entering into a joint venture with Prokon Nord, the German offshore wind turbine
and biomass plant developer and current owner of Multibrid. This transaction valued
Multibrid at €150m ($210m).

In June 2010 French nuclear giant Areva purhased the remaining 49% of maker
Multibrid. With the latest purchase, Multibrid is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Areva
to be known as Areva Wind. PN Rotor, which makes blades for Multibrid turbines, and
was already a 100% Areva-owned unit, is now part of the Areva Wind organisation.

Areva Wind – Offshore Turbines
Multibrid M5000 - The Multibrid M5000 is one of the most unique and distinctive
turbine designs around, with its nacelle being only half as long as most other
turbines. In fact, the nacelle does not protrude over the rear of the tower at all. The
turbine has a single main bearing with a single stage planetary-style gearbox. The
Multibrid is, in principle, a cross between a direct-drive turbine with no gearbox and
a standard turbine with a multistage gearbox. The low tower-head mass of 310
tonnes is a key feature of the turbine for its intended offshore application as it eases
transportation and installation. Reliability offshore is an integral element of the
Multibrid concept. The low rotational speed-level and the small number of rotating
parts and roller bearings reduce the risk of damage in the drive train to a minimum.

Because of the level of system integration within the nacelle, the main components
are not separately housed, but rather attached directly to the nacelle’s frame. This
also helps create the M5000’s shorter nacelle. The components are all fully
enclosed and protected from the elements. The permanent protection of the
turbine’s technology from the corrosive sea atmosphere is seen as the basic
precondition for a long lifetime. Therefore nacelle and hub of the Multibrid M5000
are hermetically encapsulated against the ambient air. An air treatment system
filters the air throughout all weather and operational conditions and means that the
plant’s interior is not affected by corrosion through salt and humidity.

Heat build-up is addressed by an intake of air at the foot of the tower, which is
filtered and pressurised, and then allowed to enter the nacelle from below as an air
stream that passes through, cooling the nacelle.

With only one transmission step the manufacturer can lay claim to high reliability.
The construction, however, means that large-scale repairs to the turbine are
impractical to carry out at sea and transmission replacement would be impossible.
The manufacturer plans to replace the entire tower-head in the event of such
problems and conduct repairs onshore.

The turbine has a 116m rotor diameter, giving a 10,568m2 swept area. Offshore, the
turbine would be installed atop 85m towers. The 56m variable-speed pitchcontrolled
blades each weigh 16.5 tonnes and are manufactured in Poland. The
turbine has a cut-in wind speed of 3.5 m/s and a cut-out speed of 25 m/s. Total
weight for the nacelle (including rotor) is approximately 310 tonnes.

The rotor blades are characterised by exceptionally high stiffness and low weight
due to the employment of carbon fibre girders. The aerodynamics of the rotor
blades were designed towards yield performance and provide low noise emission.
Three independent electrical blade pitch systems guarantee a highly dynamic blade
angle adjustment and maximum safety in case of failure.


Personnel transfer systems
The transport of maintenance staff and the boarding of personnel to offshore structures
rank amongst the main operational challenges related to offshore wind energy plants.
One of the main risks in terms of service is getting from the vessel to the turbine,
involving physically getting personnel across the inevitable gap present. The danger is
exacerbated by poor weather and waves, which make the short journey a dangerous
one.

Several companies have developed systems to facilitate the transfer of personnel from
vessels (both large construction vessels and smaller PTVs).

Ampelmann
The Ampelmann is a ship-based self stabilising platform that provides safe, easy and
fast offshore access by actively compensating the wave-induced motions of the vessel.

In order to navigate the bridge from all sides of the vessel, a slew bearing is applied that
rotates both the transfer-deck and telescoping access bridge in a fully 360 degrees of
freedom. The access bridge is equipped with two hydraulic cylinders. By these ‘luffing'
cylinders, the access bridge is able to incline from -19 degrees (reaching the boatlanding
and ladder) up to +23 degrees (accessing the balcony of the wind-turbine).

The Ampelmann is especially designed as an offshore access system that can be
installed and operated on board of any vessel or barge from 50m length and up.

After a successful trial in September 2009, the Ampelmann A-02 was mounted on the
Jumbo Javelin vessel. The vessel performed transition piece installation on the UK’s
Greater Gabbard offshore wind farm in 2010. This is the first major offshore wind
deployment for the system.

The Engineering Business : WaterBridge – WaterBridge is claimed to be a practical and
innovative solution to the logistics problem of transferring personnel at sea. Originally
designed to access offshore wind turbines, the inflatable bridge concept has been
developed from the original WaterBridge into a family of solutions for the transfer of
personnel, supplies & equipment at sea.

Once deployed, WaterBridge minimises the effect of relative motion between the support
vessel and the target at the transfer point allowing personnel safe and easy access in a
wide range of sea conditions. The 8m inflatable bridge was developed to facilitate access
to wind turbines in a greater range of weather conditions than traditional landing systems
would permit. Turbine maintenance costs are reduced by increasing the operational
weather window.

Fabricom Oil & Gas and AMEC : The Offshore Access System – The OAS is a
system offered by a joint venture between Fabricom Oil & Gas and AMEC enabling
people to be transferred safely from ship to a moving vessel to fixed offshore structures
such as offshore wind turbines. It uses a hydraulic footbridge attached to the ship that
can be locked onto the platform. The system is capable of providing safe "walk to work"
access in varying sea state conditions of up to 2.5 metre significant wave height.

4 Main Markets
In June 2009 the government approved the SEA giving the Crown Estate the go ahead
to develop 25GW of new capacity in coastal waters under Round 3.

Eighteen companies and consortia from at least nine countries submitted a total of 40
bids for the Round 3 licensing process. At least two each were filed for the nine
indicative development zones. The developers that won the exclusivity contracts for the
nine zones are :
• Moray Firth Zone, Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd which is 75% owned by
EDP Renovaveis and 25% owned by SeaEnergy Renewables – 1.3GW
• Firth of Forth Zone, SeaGreen Wind Energy Ltd equally owned by SSE
Renewables and Fluor – 3.5GW
• Dogger Bank Zone, the Forewind Consortium equally owned by each of SSE
Renewables, RWE Npower Renewables, Statoil and Statkraft – 9GW
• Hornsea Zone, Siemens Project Ventures and Mainstream Renewable Power,
a consortium equally owned by Mainstream Renewable Power and Siemens
Project Ventures and involving Hochtief Construction – 4GW
• Norfolk Bank Zone, East Anglia Offshore Wind Ltd equally owned by Scottish
Power Renewables and Vattenfall Vindkraft – 7.2GW
• Hastings Zone, Eon Climate and Renewables UK – 0.6GW
• West of Isle of Wight Zone, Eneco New Energy – 0.9GW
• Bristol Channel Zone, RWE Npower Renewables – 1.5GW
• Irish Sea Zone, Centrica Renewable Energy and involving RES Group –
4.2GW.

The UK’s Round 3 projects represent a step-change in the industry. The 9 Zones in
Round 3 will see an estimated 46 projects/phases built over a 12 to 15 year period. The
first construction activity is touted to start as early as 2013 but the majority of activity is
expected to take place between 2016-2027.

The commitment to Round 3 has helped the UK begin to develop its supply chain with
manufacturers already being attracted by the size of the market.

It is essential that the conditions for investment are maintained so that projects can be
delivered and that the UK can develop a strong domestic supply chain. Concerns over
changes to the market mechanism by the new coalition government should be cleared
by the end of October 2010 with announcements expected on the Renewables
Obligation.

Scottish Territorial Waters
On 22 May 2008, The Crown Estate requested initial expressions of interest from
companies wishing to be considered for developing commercial scale windfarms within
Scottish territorial waters (STW). Following the initial registration process, The Crown
Estate invited registered companies to submit project proposals for assessment. By the
close of this application process it had received 23 site applications from a total of 14
development companies and consortia.

In February 2009, The Crown Estate announced that it would be offering exclusivity
agreements to companies and consortia for 10 sites. The agreements were made to
nine companies and consortia for sites totalling more than 6GW :

• Solway Firth, E.ON Climate & Renewables UK Developments – 300MW
• Wigtown Bay, Dong Wind (UK) Ltd – 280MW
• Kintyre, Airtricity Holdings (UK) Ltd – 378MW
• Islay, Airtricity Holdings (UK) Ltd – 680MW
• Argyll Array, Scottish Power Renewables – 1,500MW
• Beatrice, Airtricity Holdings UK Ltd & SeaEnergy Renewables Ltd – 920MW
• Inch Cape, NPower Renewables Ltd & SeaEnergy Renewables Ltd – 905MW
• Bell Rock, Airtricity/Fluor – 700MW (Abandoned, May 2010)
• Naert na Gaoithe, Mainstream Renewable Power Ltd – 360MW
• Forth Array, Fred Olsen Renewables Ltd – 415MW

STW projects are expected to be built between 2015-2025. Bell Rock was abandoned
by the developers due to radar conflict issues.

Demonstration Sites
Crown Estate released four new demonstration sites in August 2010 in response to the
need for a testing ground for the new generation of wind farms in deeper waters. The
sites incorporate two two-unit demonstrators and two larger (11 turbine and 100MW)
projects around the country. The leases will broadly mirror Round 1 with the first five
years seen as the key demonstration stage at reduced rents. After this the site will
continue under commercial terms.

The successful projects have timelines built into their contracts and some could be
operational for the start of Round 3 developments. More details about the projects’
timelines will become public towards the end of 2010. The demonstrator projects are
outlined below.

Disclaimer
All Rights Reserved.

By purchasing this document, your organisation agrees that it will not copy or allow to be
copied in part or whole or otherwise circulated in any form any of the contents without
the written permission of the publishers. Additional copies of this study may be purchased
at a specially discounted rate.

The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate, but no representation
or warranty, express or implied, is made by the publisher as to the completeness, accuracy
or fairness of any information contained in it and we do not accept any responsibility in
relation to such information whether fact, opinion or conclusion that the reader may draw.
The views expressed are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent
those of the publishers.

To order this report, please send an email to mail@worldoils.com

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The World Offshore Wind Market Report 2011-2015
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace    Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace

Equipment ID   : 916
Equipment name   : The World Offshore Wind Market Report 2011-2015
Category   : Research Reports
Specifications   : Name of the Report :
The World Offshore Wind Market Report 2011-2015

Contents

1 Executive Summary & Conclusions ........13
1.1 Introduction to the Report.........14
1.2 Executive Summary .........14
1.3 Conclusions ......16

2 Introduction .........19
2.1 Development history ..........20
2.2 Market drivers ........22
2.3 Market issues ..........27

3 Technology .......31
3.1 Turbines ........32
3.2 Foundations ........53
3.3 Cables ..........70
3.4 Substations .........81
3.5 Installation vessels ........92
3.6 Operations & Maintenance......109

4 Main Markets ..........117
4.1 UK ...........118
4.2 Germany .........125
4.3 China ........126
4.4 Belgium ...........129
4.5 Denmark ......131
4.6 Netherlands ..........133
4.7 USA .........135
4.8 South Korea ......137

5 Market Forecasts .............139
5.1 Forecasting methodology .............140
5.2 Capital expenditure ...........141
5.3 Annual installed capacity ...........142
5.4 Turbines .........144
5.5 Foundations ..........147
5.6 Cables ..........152
5.7 Substations ........156
5.8 Installation vessels ..........157
5.9 Personnel transfer vessels ........158

Figures

Figure 1: Capital Expenditure by Country 2006-2015 .....14
Figure 2: Installed Capacity by Country 2006-2015 .....15
Figure 3: Global Primary Energy Demand 1966-2009 .....25
Figure 4: Global Electricity Generation Forecast by Fuel Type 2007-2035 ...... 26
Figure 5: Nacelle of a GE 3.6MW Offshore Turbine ........32
Figure 6: Average Turbine Size 1991-2010 .........34
Figure 7: Capacity Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2010 ......37
Figure 8: Multibrid M5000 Turbine on Tripod Foundation .........38
Figure 9: BARD VM 5MW Test Turbine Nearshore Hooksiel ...... 40
Figure 10: Siemens 2.3MW Wind turbine, Offshore Lillgrund (Sweden) .......... 46
Figure 11:Repower 6M Turbine ........46
Figure 12: SL3000 being installed off Shanghai .......48
Figure 13: Diagram of GBS ..........53
Figure 14: Diagram of Monopile .........54
Figure 15: Diagram of Tripod .........54
Figure 16: Photo of Hywind ...........55
Figure 17: Aker Solutions Verdal Yard ..........58
Figure 18: The ‘Tripile’ foundation for BARD 5.0 Offshore Wind Turbine ......... 58
Figure 19: Installation of BARD Tripile Foundation .........59
Figure 20: Monopile Sections for Horns Rev II .........59
Figure 21: Arnish Yard ..........61
Figure 22: EEW-SPC facilities in Rostock.......62
Figure 23: SLP's Lowestoft Yard .........65
Figure 24: Monopiles for Greater Gabbard ...........69
Figure 25: Crane Barge Rambiz installing a Substation at Gunfleet Sands ..... 82
Figure 26: Matador 3 Lifting Substation onto Lastdrager Pontoon ............82
Figure 27: The First Robin Rigg Substation ..........85
Figure 28: Barrow Offshore Substation .........85
Figure 29:Lillgrund Substation ........87
Figure 30: Nysted Substation ...........87
Figure 31: Gunfleet Sands Substation .......87
Figure 32: Asian Hercules Installing Substation at Horns Rev ........87
Figure 33: Jacket and Transformer Module for Horns Rev II .........87
Figure 34: Load-out of the first offshore HVDC substation ........88
Figure 35: A2Sea A/S Performing Turbine Installation ........92
Figure 36: One lift of Sinovel Turbine .........93
Figure 37: A2Sea Vessels M/V Sea Energy & M/V Sea Power at Horns Rev..... 96
Figure 38: Sea Worker ........97
Figure 39: Wind Lift I ............98
Figure 40: Heavy Lift Vessel Svanen ........99
Figure 42: Beluga Hochtief Offshore Vessel Visualisation ......100
Figure 41: Jack-up Platform Odin ........100
Figure 43: Rambiz en-route to Beatrice Demonstrator site .........101
Figure 44: EIDE Performing Foundation Installation at Nysted, Denmark ...... 102
Figure 45: The Jumbo Javelin loaded with TPs .......103
Figure 46: The Resolution at Barrow, UK .........105
Figure 47: Service Jack 2 ..........106
Figure 48: Seajacks Vessel Leviathan ........107
Figure 49: The HLV Oleg Strashnov ......108
Figure 50: Ampelmann being tested .......112
Figure 51: WaterBridge .........112
Figure 52: The Offshore Access System .........113
Figure 53: Windlift Prototype ........113
Figure 54: Horns Rev II Accommodation Platform Poseidon .......115
Figure 55: UK Power Generation Supply-Demand 2006-2030 ......122
Figure 56: UK Power Generation Supply-Demand by Fuel 2008-2030 .......123
Figure 57: Capital Expenditure by Country 2006-2015 ........141
Figure 58: Installed Capacity by Country 2006-2015 ........142
Figure 59: Turbines Installed by Country 2006-2015 ........144
Figure 60: Turbines Installed by Size 2006-2015 .........144
Figure 61: Capacity Installed by Turbine Size 2006-2015 .....145
Figure 62: Turbines Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 .........145
Figure 63: Capacity Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 ......146
Figure 64: Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......147
Figure 65: Foundations Installed by Type 2006-2015 ........148
Figure 66: GBS Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......149
Figure 67: Monopile Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .....149
Figure 68: Tripod Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......150
Figure 69: Jacket Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......150
Figure 70: Capacity Installed by Foundation Type 2006-2015 .......151
Figure 71: Foundations Installed by Water Depth 2006-2015 ........151
Figure 72: Foundations Installed by Distance to Shore 2006-2015 .......152
Figure 73: Total Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 ........152
Figure 74: Total Cable Length Installed by Type 2006-2015 ........153
Figure 75: Export Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......153
Figure 76: Export Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 ......154
Figure 77: Infield Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......154
Figure 78: Infield Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 .......155
Figure 79: Substations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ........156
Figure 80: Installation Vessels Required by Type 2006-2015 .......157
Figure 81: Total PTVs Required 2006-2015 .........158
Figure 82: New PTVs Required Each Year 2006-2015 ........158

Tables

Table 1: Installed Offshore Wind Farms ..........21
Table 2: EU 2020 Requirements ..........24
Table 3: Installed Offshore Wind Farm Transformer Substations ........81
Table 4: Capital Expenditure by Country 2006-2015 .......141
Table 5: Installed Capacity by Country 2006-2015 ........142
Table 6: Turbines Installed by Country 2006-2015 ...........144
Table 7: Turbines Installed by Size 2006-2015 .........144
Table 8: Capacity Installed by Turbine Size 2006-2015 .......145
Table 9: Turbines Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 ..........146
Table 10: Capacity Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 .........146
Table 11: Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......147
Table 12: Foundations Installed by Type 2006-2015 .......148
Table 13: GBS Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015......149
Table 14: Monopile Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .....149
Table 15: Tripod Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .....150
Table 16: Jacket Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......150
Table 17: Capacity Installed by Foundation Type 2006-2015........151
Table 18: Foundations Installed by Water Depth 2006-2015.........151
Table 19: Foundations Installed by Distance to Shore 2006-2015 .....152
Table 20: Total Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015........ 153
Table 21: Total Cable Length Installed by Type 2006-2015 ...... 153
Table 22: Export Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......154
Table 23: Export Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 ......154
Table 24: Infield Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 .........155
Table 25: Infield Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 .........155
Table 26: Substations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ...........156
Table 27: Installation Vessels Required by Type 2006-2015 .........157
Table 28: Total PTVs Required 2006-2015.........158
Table 29: New PTVs Required Each Year 2006-2015 ........158

2 Introduction

Financing
Historically, offshore wind projects were almost exclusively built through balance sheet
financing. The first significant exception to this was the Princess Amalia project (formerly
known as Q7) off the Netherlands, which was completed in 2008.

The role of utility companies in project development and ownership has become defacto.
Whilst there have been some notable successes in privately developed projects,
particularly in the UK, the market is now almost fully utility driven. Utility involvement has
grown due to the increasing capital required to move projects through development and
requirements for utilities to source energy from renewable resources.

This helped a lot of recent projects to be built through the willingness of the utilities to
fund construction through their balance sheets. However, due to the high costs seen in
the industry, which hit at the same time as the global financial ‘crisis’ the willingness (or
ability) of utilities to fund projects has fallen. This has led to even the largest utility
companies seeking financing for their developments to a certain extent. An increase in
the number of utilities working together on projects has also been seen; this is especially
visible on the large UK Round 3 projects.

The financial community has become more comfortable with offshore wind, with most
projects built over the last three years having required pre-construction financing. Project
financing is also increasing in use. The development of the industry will continue to
require large amounts of private investment.

Nevertheless, the current financial climate means investors are naturally cautious. Whilst
early UK projects can demonstrate an excellent rate of return, current projects are far
from attractive, with many failing to demonstrate even a 10% rate of return. Coupled with
the high costs being seen in the industry and growing concern about the lack of cost
savings being demonstrated, the investment environment is still difficult.

The UK’s Round 3 alone could cost in excess of £100bn to build. The difference with
Round 3 is the successive nature of the phased development of Zones. Several
developers have stated the likely need to refinance phases as they are built in order to
build successive phases.

Investment banks and private equity need to have long-term vision and confidence in the
industry, whether for project financing or for investment into supply chain companies.
This can be fostered through commitment to long term offshore wind targets and market
mechanisms. There has always been an element of uncertainty in the investment
community over potential changes to market mechanisms and wider policies.

Successes are happening. In August 2010, C-Power raised €950m ($1.23bn) in loans
for its second phase of the Thornton Bank project off Belgium. It is the largest financial
package assembled to date for an offshore wind farm. The five commercial banks
involved in the financial package — Société Générale, KBC, Rabobank, Commerzbank,
Dexia and ASN — will provide up to €540m in loans and a further €350m in risk
participation. The European Investment Bank is also contributing as are the Danish and
German export-credit agencies.

The European Investment Bank’s involvement in offshore wind has been critical to
projects going ahead. The EIB is actively supporting European R&D projects as part of
EU's objective of building the world's leading knowledge-based economy and has
financed some 16 wind farm projects (completed), totalling some €35bn since 2000. In
2009, the EIB approved over €2bn in loans for the offshore wind sector. Most recently, it
has approved two £250m loans for the London Array project and €300m for the Belwind
project. Its involvement is encouraging to investors but it cannot be guaranteed into the
future.

3 Technology

Major turbine manufacturers

Areva Wind, France/Germany
Areva Wind owns Multibrid, a small German wind turbine manufacturer formerly owned
by renewable energy company Prokon Nord. The compact Multibrid turbine technology
developed in the 1990s by Aerodyn incorporates a single-stage gearbox and mid-speed
generator. Its technology is aimed at the offshore market.

In November 2003 Prokon Nord purchased Multibrid Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH,
Pfleiderer Wind Energy’s offshore wind business and with it, the Multibrid turbine
technology. Previously, in 2000, Pfleiderer had acquired the rights to the Multibrid
technology for turbines of above 3MW from Finnish manufacturer WinWind Oy.

In September 2007 Areva announced the acquisition of a 51% stake in Multibrid
entering into a joint venture with Prokon Nord, the German offshore wind turbine
and biomass plant developer and current owner of Multibrid. This transaction valued
Multibrid at €150m ($210m).

In June 2010 French nuclear giant Areva purhased the remaining 49% of maker
Multibrid. With the latest purchase, Multibrid is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Areva
to be known as Areva Wind. PN Rotor, which makes blades for Multibrid turbines, and
was already a 100% Areva-owned unit, is now part of the Areva Wind organisation.

Areva Wind – Offshore Turbines
Multibrid M5000 - The Multibrid M5000 is one of the most unique and distinctive
turbine designs around, with its nacelle being only half as long as most other
turbines. In fact, the nacelle does not protrude over the rear of the tower at all. The
turbine has a single main bearing with a single stage planetary-style gearbox. The
Multibrid is, in principle, a cross between a direct-drive turbine with no gearbox and
a standard turbine with a multistage gearbox. The low tower-head mass of 310
tonnes is a key feature of the turbine for its intended offshore application as it eases
transportation and installation. Reliability offshore is an integral element of the
Multibrid concept. The low rotational speed-level and the small number of rotating
parts and roller bearings reduce the risk of damage in the drive train to a minimum.

Because of the level of system integration within the nacelle, the main components
are not separately housed, but rather attached directly to the nacelle’s frame. This
also helps create the M5000’s shorter nacelle. The components are all fully
enclosed and protected from the elements. The permanent protection of the
turbine’s technology from the corrosive sea atmosphere is seen as the basic
precondition for a long lifetime. Therefore nacelle and hub of the Multibrid M5000
are hermetically encapsulated against the ambient air. An air treatment system
filters the air throughout all weather and operational conditions and means that the
plant’s interior is not affected by corrosion through salt and humidity.

Heat build-up is addressed by an intake of air at the foot of the tower, which is
filtered and pressurised, and then allowed to enter the nacelle from below as an air
stream that passes through, cooling the nacelle.

With only one transmission step the manufacturer can lay claim to high reliability.
The construction, however, means that large-scale repairs to the turbine are
impractical to carry out at sea and transmission replacement would be impossible.
The manufacturer plans to replace the entire tower-head in the event of such
problems and conduct repairs onshore.

The turbine has a 116m rotor diameter, giving a 10,568m2 swept area. Offshore, the
turbine would be installed atop 85m towers. The 56m variable-speed pitchcontrolled
blades each weigh 16.5 tonnes and are manufactured in Poland. The
turbine has a cut-in wind speed of 3.5 m/s and a cut-out speed of 25 m/s. Total
weight for the nacelle (including rotor) is approximately 310 tonnes.

The rotor blades are characterised by exceptionally high stiffness and low weight
due to the employment of carbon fibre girders. The aerodynamics of the rotor
blades were designed towards yield performance and provide low noise emission.
Three independent electrical blade pitch systems guarantee a highly dynamic blade
angle adjustment and maximum safety in case of failure.


Personnel transfer systems
The transport of maintenance staff and the boarding of personnel to offshore structures
rank amongst the main operational challenges related to offshore wind energy plants.
One of the main risks in terms of service is getting from the vessel to the turbine,
involving physically getting personnel across the inevitable gap present. The danger is
exacerbated by poor weather and waves, which make the short journey a dangerous
one.

Several companies have developed systems to facilitate the transfer of personnel from
vessels (both large construction vessels and smaller PTVs).

Ampelmann
The Ampelmann is a ship-based self stabilising platform that provides safe, easy and
fast offshore access by actively compensating the wave-induced motions of the vessel.

In order to navigate the bridge from all sides of the vessel, a slew bearing is applied that
rotates both the transfer-deck and telescoping access bridge in a fully 360 degrees of
freedom. The access bridge is equipped with two hydraulic cylinders. By these ‘luffing'
cylinders, the access bridge is able to incline from -19 degrees (reaching the boatlanding
and ladder) up to +23 degrees (accessing the balcony of the wind-turbine).

The Ampelmann is especially designed as an offshore access system that can be
installed and operated on board of any vessel or barge from 50m length and up.

After a successful trial in September 2009, the Ampelmann A-02 was mounted on the
Jumbo Javelin vessel. The vessel performed transition piece installation on the UK’s
Greater Gabbard offshore wind farm in 2010. This is the first major offshore wind
deployment for the system.

The Engineering Business : WaterBridge – WaterBridge is claimed to be a practical and
innovative solution to the logistics problem of transferring personnel at sea. Originally
designed to access offshore wind turbines, the inflatable bridge concept has been
developed from the original WaterBridge into a family of solutions for the transfer of
personnel, supplies & equipment at sea.

Once deployed, WaterBridge minimises the effect of relative motion between the support
vessel and the target at the transfer point allowing personnel safe and easy access in a
wide range of sea conditions. The 8m inflatable bridge was developed to facilitate access
to wind turbines in a greater range of weather conditions than traditional landing systems
would permit. Turbine maintenance costs are reduced by increasing the operational
weather window.

Fabricom Oil & Gas and AMEC : The Offshore Access System – The OAS is a
system offered by a joint venture between Fabricom Oil & Gas and AMEC enabling
people to be transferred safely from ship to a moving vessel to fixed offshore structures
such as offshore wind turbines. It uses a hydraulic footbridge attached to the ship that
can be locked onto the platform. The system is capable of providing safe "walk to work"
access in varying sea state conditions of up to 2.5 metre significant wave height.

4 Main Markets
In June 2009 the government approved the SEA giving the Crown Estate the go ahead
to develop 25GW of new capacity in coastal waters under Round 3.

Eighteen companies and consortia from at least nine countries submitted a total of 40
bids for the Round 3 licensing process. At least two each were filed for the nine
indicative development zones. The developers that won the exclusivity contracts for the
nine zones are :
• Moray Firth Zone, Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd which is 75% owned by
EDP Renovaveis and 25% owned by SeaEnergy Renewables – 1.3GW
• Firth of Forth Zone, SeaGreen Wind Energy Ltd equally owned by SSE
Renewables and Fluor – 3.5GW
• Dogger Bank Zone, the Forewind Consortium equally owned by each of SSE
Renewables, RWE Npower Renewables, Statoil and Statkraft – 9GW
• Hornsea Zone, Siemens Project Ventures and Mainstream Renewable Power,
a consortium equally owned by Mainstream Renewable Power and Siemens
Project Ventures and involving Hochtief Construction – 4GW
• Norfolk Bank Zone, East Anglia Offshore Wind Ltd equally owned by Scottish
Power Renewables and Vattenfall Vindkraft – 7.2GW
• Hastings Zone, Eon Climate and Renewables UK – 0.6GW
• West of Isle of Wight Zone, Eneco New Energy – 0.9GW
• Bristol Channel Zone, RWE Npower Renewables – 1.5GW
• Irish Sea Zone, Centrica Renewable Energy and involving RES Group –
4.2GW.

The UK’s Round 3 projects represent a step-change in the industry. The 9 Zones in
Round 3 will see an estimated 46 projects/phases built over a 12 to 15 year period. The
first construction activity is touted to start as early as 2013 but the majority of activity is
expected to take place between 2016-2027.

The commitment to Round 3 has helped the UK begin to develop its supply chain with
manufacturers already being attracted by the size of the market.

It is essential that the conditions for investment are maintained so that projects can be
delivered and that the UK can develop a strong domestic supply chain. Concerns over
changes to the market mechanism by the new coalition government should be cleared
by the end of October 2010 with announcements expected on the Renewables
Obligation.

Scottish Territorial Waters
On 22 May 2008, The Crown Estate requested initial expressions of interest from
companies wishing to be considered for developing commercial scale windfarms within
Scottish territorial waters (STW). Following the initial registration process, The Crown
Estate invited registered companies to submit project proposals for assessment. By the
close of this application process it had received 23 site applications from a total of 14
development companies and consortia.

In February 2009, The Crown Estate announced that it would be offering exclusivity
agreements to companies and consortia for 10 sites. The agreements were made to
nine companies and consortia for sites totalling more than 6GW :

• Solway Firth, E.ON Climate & Renewables UK Developments – 300MW
• Wigtown Bay, Dong Wind (UK) Ltd – 280MW
• Kintyre, Airtricity Holdings (UK) Ltd – 378MW
• Islay, Airtricity Holdings (UK) Ltd – 680MW
• Argyll Array, Scottish Power Renewables – 1,500MW
• Beatrice, Airtricity Holdings UK Ltd & SeaEnergy Renewables Ltd – 920MW
• Inch Cape, NPower Renewables Ltd & SeaEnergy Renewables Ltd – 905MW
• Bell Rock, Airtricity/Fluor – 700MW (Abandoned, May 2010)
• Naert na Gaoithe, Mainstream Renewable Power Ltd – 360MW
• Forth Array, Fred Olsen Renewables Ltd – 415MW

STW projects are expected to be built between 2015-2025. Bell Rock was abandoned
by the developers due to radar conflict issues.

Demonstration Sites
Crown Estate released four new demonstration sites in August 2010 in response to the
need for a testing ground for the new generation of wind farms in deeper waters. The
sites incorporate two two-unit demonstrators and two larger (11 turbine and 100MW)
projects around the country. The leases will broadly mirror Round 1 with the first five
years seen as the key demonstration stage at reduced rents. After this the site will
continue under commercial terms.

The successful projects have timelines built into their contracts and some could be
operational for the start of Round 3 developments. More details about the projects’
timelines will become public towards the end of 2010. The demonstrator projects are
outlined below.

Disclaimer
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the written permission of the publishers. Additional copies of this study may be purchased
at a specially discounted rate.

The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate, but no representation
or warranty, express or implied, is made by the publisher as to the completeness, accuracy
or fairness of any information contained in it and we do not accept any responsibility in
relation to such information whether fact, opinion or conclusion that the reader may draw.
The views expressed are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent
those of the publishers.

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The World Offshore Wind Market Report 2011-2015
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace    
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace

Equipment ID   : 916
Equipment name   : The World Offshore Wind Market Report 2011-2015
Category   : Research Reports
 
Specifications  :
Name of the Report :
The World Offshore Wind Market Report 2011-2015

Contents

1 Executive Summary & Conclusions ........13
1.1 Introduction to the Report.........14
1.2 Executive Summary .........14
1.3 Conclusions ......16

2 Introduction .........19
2.1 Development history ..........20
2.2 Market drivers ........22
2.3 Market issues ..........27

3 Technology .......31
3.1 Turbines ........32
3.2 Foundations ........53
3.3 Cables ..........70
3.4 Substations .........81
3.5 Installation vessels ........92
3.6 Operations & Maintenance......109

4 Main Markets ..........117
4.1 UK ...........118
4.2 Germany .........125
4.3 China ........126
4.4 Belgium ...........129
4.5 Denmark ......131
4.6 Netherlands ..........133
4.7 USA .........135
4.8 South Korea ......137

5 Market Forecasts .............139
5.1 Forecasting methodology .............140
5.2 Capital expenditure ...........141
5.3 Annual installed capacity ...........142
5.4 Turbines .........144
5.5 Foundations ..........147
5.6 Cables ..........152
5.7 Substations ........156
5.8 Installation vessels ..........157
5.9 Personnel transfer vessels ........158

Figures

Figure 1: Capital Expenditure by Country 2006-2015 .....14
Figure 2: Installed Capacity by Country 2006-2015 .....15
Figure 3: Global Primary Energy Demand 1966-2009 .....25
Figure 4: Global Electricity Generation Forecast by Fuel Type 2007-2035 ...... 26
Figure 5: Nacelle of a GE 3.6MW Offshore Turbine ........32
Figure 6: Average Turbine Size 1991-2010 .........34
Figure 7: Capacity Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2010 ......37
Figure 8: Multibrid M5000 Turbine on Tripod Foundation .........38
Figure 9: BARD VM 5MW Test Turbine Nearshore Hooksiel ...... 40
Figure 10: Siemens 2.3MW Wind turbine, Offshore Lillgrund (Sweden) .......... 46
Figure 11:Repower 6M Turbine ........46
Figure 12: SL3000 being installed off Shanghai .......48
Figure 13: Diagram of GBS ..........53
Figure 14: Diagram of Monopile .........54
Figure 15: Diagram of Tripod .........54
Figure 16: Photo of Hywind ...........55
Figure 17: Aker Solutions Verdal Yard ..........58
Figure 18: The ‘Tripile’ foundation for BARD 5.0 Offshore Wind Turbine ......... 58
Figure 19: Installation of BARD Tripile Foundation .........59
Figure 20: Monopile Sections for Horns Rev II .........59
Figure 21: Arnish Yard ..........61
Figure 22: EEW-SPC facilities in Rostock.......62
Figure 23: SLP's Lowestoft Yard .........65
Figure 24: Monopiles for Greater Gabbard ...........69
Figure 25: Crane Barge Rambiz installing a Substation at Gunfleet Sands ..... 82
Figure 26: Matador 3 Lifting Substation onto Lastdrager Pontoon ............82
Figure 27: The First Robin Rigg Substation ..........85
Figure 28: Barrow Offshore Substation .........85
Figure 29:Lillgrund Substation ........87
Figure 30: Nysted Substation ...........87
Figure 31: Gunfleet Sands Substation .......87
Figure 32: Asian Hercules Installing Substation at Horns Rev ........87
Figure 33: Jacket and Transformer Module for Horns Rev II .........87
Figure 34: Load-out of the first offshore HVDC substation ........88
Figure 35: A2Sea A/S Performing Turbine Installation ........92
Figure 36: One lift of Sinovel Turbine .........93
Figure 37: A2Sea Vessels M/V Sea Energy & M/V Sea Power at Horns Rev..... 96
Figure 38: Sea Worker ........97
Figure 39: Wind Lift I ............98
Figure 40: Heavy Lift Vessel Svanen ........99
Figure 42: Beluga Hochtief Offshore Vessel Visualisation ......100
Figure 41: Jack-up Platform Odin ........100
Figure 43: Rambiz en-route to Beatrice Demonstrator site .........101
Figure 44: EIDE Performing Foundation Installation at Nysted, Denmark ...... 102
Figure 45: The Jumbo Javelin loaded with TPs .......103
Figure 46: The Resolution at Barrow, UK .........105
Figure 47: Service Jack 2 ..........106
Figure 48: Seajacks Vessel Leviathan ........107
Figure 49: The HLV Oleg Strashnov ......108
Figure 50: Ampelmann being tested .......112
Figure 51: WaterBridge .........112
Figure 52: The Offshore Access System .........113
Figure 53: Windlift Prototype ........113
Figure 54: Horns Rev II Accommodation Platform Poseidon .......115
Figure 55: UK Power Generation Supply-Demand 2006-2030 ......122
Figure 56: UK Power Generation Supply-Demand by Fuel 2008-2030 .......123
Figure 57: Capital Expenditure by Country 2006-2015 ........141
Figure 58: Installed Capacity by Country 2006-2015 ........142
Figure 59: Turbines Installed by Country 2006-2015 ........144
Figure 60: Turbines Installed by Size 2006-2015 .........144
Figure 61: Capacity Installed by Turbine Size 2006-2015 .....145
Figure 62: Turbines Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 .........145
Figure 63: Capacity Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 ......146
Figure 64: Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......147
Figure 65: Foundations Installed by Type 2006-2015 ........148
Figure 66: GBS Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......149
Figure 67: Monopile Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .....149
Figure 68: Tripod Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......150
Figure 69: Jacket Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......150
Figure 70: Capacity Installed by Foundation Type 2006-2015 .......151
Figure 71: Foundations Installed by Water Depth 2006-2015 ........151
Figure 72: Foundations Installed by Distance to Shore 2006-2015 .......152
Figure 73: Total Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 ........152
Figure 74: Total Cable Length Installed by Type 2006-2015 ........153
Figure 75: Export Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......153
Figure 76: Export Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 ......154
Figure 77: Infield Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......154
Figure 78: Infield Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 .......155
Figure 79: Substations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ........156
Figure 80: Installation Vessels Required by Type 2006-2015 .......157
Figure 81: Total PTVs Required 2006-2015 .........158
Figure 82: New PTVs Required Each Year 2006-2015 ........158

Tables

Table 1: Installed Offshore Wind Farms ..........21
Table 2: EU 2020 Requirements ..........24
Table 3: Installed Offshore Wind Farm Transformer Substations ........81
Table 4: Capital Expenditure by Country 2006-2015 .......141
Table 5: Installed Capacity by Country 2006-2015 ........142
Table 6: Turbines Installed by Country 2006-2015 ...........144
Table 7: Turbines Installed by Size 2006-2015 .........144
Table 8: Capacity Installed by Turbine Size 2006-2015 .......145
Table 9: Turbines Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 ..........146
Table 10: Capacity Installed by Manufacturer 2006-2015 .........146
Table 11: Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......147
Table 12: Foundations Installed by Type 2006-2015 .......148
Table 13: GBS Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015......149
Table 14: Monopile Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .....149
Table 15: Tripod Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .....150
Table 16: Jacket Foundations Installed by Country 2006-2015 .......150
Table 17: Capacity Installed by Foundation Type 2006-2015........151
Table 18: Foundations Installed by Water Depth 2006-2015.........151
Table 19: Foundations Installed by Distance to Shore 2006-2015 .....152
Table 20: Total Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015........ 153
Table 21: Total Cable Length Installed by Type 2006-2015 ...... 153
Table 22: Export Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 ......154
Table 23: Export Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 ......154
Table 24: Infield Cable Length Installed by Country 2006-2015 .........155
Table 25: Infield Cable Length Installed by Cable Size 2006-2015 .........155
Table 26: Substations Installed by Country 2006-2015 ...........156
Table 27: Installation Vessels Required by Type 2006-2015 .........157
Table 28: Total PTVs Required 2006-2015.........158
Table 29: New PTVs Required Each Year 2006-2015 ........158

2 Introduction

Financing
Historically, offshore wind projects were almost exclusively built through balance sheet
financing. The first significant exception to this was the Princess Amalia project (formerly
known as Q7) off the Netherlands, which was completed in 2008.

The role of utility companies in project development and ownership has become defacto.
Whilst there have been some notable successes in privately developed projects,
particularly in the UK, the market is now almost fully utility driven. Utility involvement has
grown due to the increasing capital required to move projects through development and
requirements for utilities to source energy from renewable resources.

This helped a lot of recent projects to be built through the willingness of the utilities to
fund construction through their balance sheets. However, due to the high costs seen in
the industry, which hit at the same time as the global financial ‘crisis’ the willingness (or
ability) of utilities to fund projects has fallen. This has led to even the largest utility
companies seeking financing for their developments to a certain extent. An increase in
the number of utilities working together on projects has also been seen; this is especially
visible on the large UK Round 3 projects.

The financial community has become more comfortable with offshore wind, with most
projects built over the last three years having required pre-construction financing. Project
financing is also increasing in use. The development of the industry will continue to
require large amounts of private investment.

Nevertheless, the current financial climate means investors are naturally cautious. Whilst
early UK projects can demonstrate an excellent rate of return, current projects are far
from attractive, with many failing to demonstrate even a 10% rate of return. Coupled with
the high costs being seen in the industry and growing concern about the lack of cost
savings being demonstrated, the investment environment is still difficult.

The UK’s Round 3 alone could cost in excess of £100bn to build. The difference with
Round 3 is the successive nature of the phased development of Zones. Several
developers have stated the likely need to refinance phases as they are built in order to
build successive phases.

Investment banks and private equity need to have long-term vision and confidence in the
industry, whether for project financing or for investment into supply chain companies.
This can be fostered through commitment to long term offshore wind targets and market
mechanisms. There has always been an element of uncertainty in the investment
community over potential changes to market mechanisms and wider policies.

Successes are happening. In August 2010, C-Power raised €950m ($1.23bn) in loans
for its second phase of the Thornton Bank project off Belgium. It is the largest financial
package assembled to date for an offshore wind farm. The five commercial banks
involved in the financial package — Société Générale, KBC, Rabobank, Commerzbank,
Dexia and ASN — will provide up to €540m in loans and a further €350m in risk
participation. The European Investment Bank is also contributing as are the Danish and
German export-credit agencies.

The European Investment Bank’s involvement in offshore wind has been critical to
projects going ahead. The EIB is actively supporting European R&D projects as part of
EU's objective of building the world's leading knowledge-based economy and has
financed some 16 wind farm projects (completed), totalling some €35bn since 2000. In
2009, the EIB approved over €2bn in loans for the offshore wind sector. Most recently, it
has approved two £250m loans for the London Array project and €300m for the Belwind
project. Its involvement is encouraging to investors but it cannot be guaranteed into the
future.

3 Technology

Major turbine manufacturers

Areva Wind, France/Germany
Areva Wind owns Multibrid, a small German wind turbine manufacturer formerly owned
by renewable energy company Prokon Nord. The compact Multibrid turbine technology
developed in the 1990s by Aerodyn incorporates a single-stage gearbox and mid-speed
generator. Its technology is aimed at the offshore market.

In November 2003 Prokon Nord purchased Multibrid Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH,
Pfleiderer Wind Energy’s offshore wind business and with it, the Multibrid turbine
technology. Previously, in 2000, Pfleiderer had acquired the rights to the Multibrid
technology for turbines of above 3MW from Finnish manufacturer WinWind Oy.

In September 2007 Areva announced the acquisition of a 51% stake in Multibrid
entering into a joint venture with Prokon Nord, the German offshore wind turbine
and biomass plant developer and current owner of Multibrid. This transaction valued
Multibrid at €150m ($210m).

In June 2010 French nuclear giant Areva purhased the remaining 49% of maker
Multibrid. With the latest purchase, Multibrid is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Areva
to be known as Areva Wind. PN Rotor, which makes blades for Multibrid turbines, and
was already a 100% Areva-owned unit, is now part of the Areva Wind organisation.

Areva Wind – Offshore Turbines
Multibrid M5000 - The Multibrid M5000 is one of the most unique and distinctive
turbine designs around, with its nacelle being only half as long as most other
turbines. In fact, the nacelle does not protrude over the rear of the tower at all. The
turbine has a single main bearing with a single stage planetary-style gearbox. The
Multibrid is, in principle, a cross between a direct-drive turbine with no gearbox and
a standard turbine with a multistage gearbox. The low tower-head mass of 310
tonnes is a key feature of the turbine for its intended offshore application as it eases
transportation and installation. Reliability offshore is an integral element of the
Multibrid concept. The low rotational speed-level and the small number of rotating
parts and roller bearings reduce the risk of damage in the drive train to a minimum.

Because of the level of system integration within the nacelle, the main components
are not separately housed, but rather attached directly to the nacelle’s frame. This
also helps create the M5000’s shorter nacelle. The components are all fully
enclosed and protected from the elements. The permanent protection of the
turbine’s technology from the corrosive sea atmosphere is seen as the basic
precondition for a long lifetime. Therefore nacelle and hub of the Multibrid M5000
are hermetically encapsulated against the ambient air. An air treatment system
filters the air throughout all weather and operational conditions and means that the
plant’s interior is not affected by corrosion through salt and humidity.

Heat build-up is addressed by an intake of air at the foot of the tower, which is
filtered and pressurised, and then allowed to enter the nacelle from below as an air
stream that passes through, cooling the nacelle.

With only one transmission step the manufacturer can lay claim to high reliability.
The construction, however, means that large-scale repairs to the turbine are
impractical to carry out at sea and transmission replacement would be impossible.
The manufacturer plans to replace the entire tower-head in the event of such
problems and conduct repairs onshore.

The turbine has a 116m rotor diameter, giving a 10,568m2 swept area. Offshore, the
turbine would be installed atop 85m towers. The 56m variable-speed pitchcontrolled
blades each weigh 16.5 tonnes and are manufactured in Poland. The
turbine has a cut-in wind speed of 3.5 m/s and a cut-out speed of 25 m/s. Total
weight for the nacelle (including rotor) is approximately 310 tonnes.

The rotor blades are characterised by exceptionally high stiffness and low weight
due to the employment of carbon fibre girders. The aerodynamics of the rotor
blades were designed towards yield performance and provide low noise emission.
Three independent electrical blade pitch systems guarantee a highly dynamic blade
angle adjustment and maximum safety in case of failure.


Personnel transfer systems
The transport of maintenance staff and the boarding of personnel to offshore structures
rank amongst the main operational challenges related to offshore wind energy plants.
One of the main risks in terms of service is getting from the vessel to the turbine,
involving physically getting personnel across the inevitable gap present. The danger is
exacerbated by poor weather and waves, which make the short journey a dangerous
one.

Several companies have developed systems to facilitate the transfer of personnel from
vessels (both large construction vessels and smaller PTVs).

Ampelmann
The Ampelmann is a ship-based self stabilising platform that provides safe, easy and
fast offshore access by actively compensating the wave-induced motions of the vessel.

In order to navigate the bridge from all sides of the vessel, a slew bearing is applied that
rotates both the transfer-deck and telescoping access bridge in a fully 360 degrees of
freedom. The access bridge is equipped with two hydraulic cylinders. By these ‘luffing'
cylinders, the access bridge is able to incline from -19 degrees (reaching the boatlanding
and ladder) up to +23 degrees (accessing the balcony of the wind-turbine).

The Ampelmann is especially designed as an offshore access system that can be
installed and operated on board of any vessel or barge from 50m length and up.

After a successful trial in September 2009, the Ampelmann A-02 was mounted on the
Jumbo Javelin vessel. The vessel performed transition piece installation on the UK’s
Greater Gabbard offshore wind farm in 2010. This is the first major offshore wind
deployment for the system.

The Engineering Business : WaterBridge – WaterBridge is claimed to be a practical and
innovative solution to the logistics problem of transferring personnel at sea. Originally
designed to access offshore wind turbines, the inflatable bridge concept has been
developed from the original WaterBridge into a family of solutions for the transfer of
personnel, supplies & equipment at sea.

Once deployed, WaterBridge minimises the effect of relative motion between the support
vessel and the target at the transfer point allowing personnel safe and easy access in a
wide range of sea conditions. The 8m inflatable bridge was developed to facilitate access
to wind turbines in a greater range of weather conditions than traditional landing systems
would permit. Turbine maintenance costs are reduced by increasing the operational
weather window.

Fabricom Oil & Gas and AMEC : The Offshore Access System – The OAS is a
system offered by a joint venture between Fabricom Oil & Gas and AMEC enabling
people to be transferred safely from ship to a moving vessel to fixed offshore structures
such as offshore wind turbines. It uses a hydraulic footbridge attached to the ship that
can be locked onto the platform. The system is capable of providing safe "walk to work"
access in varying sea state conditions of up to 2.5 metre significant wave height.

4 Main Markets
In June 2009 the government approved the SEA giving the Crown Estate the go ahead
to develop 25GW of new capacity in coastal waters under Round 3.

Eighteen companies and consortia from at least nine countries submitted a total of 40
bids for the Round 3 licensing process. At least two each were filed for the nine
indicative development zones. The developers that won the exclusivity contracts for the
nine zones are :
• Moray Firth Zone, Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd which is 75% owned by
EDP Renovaveis and 25% owned by SeaEnergy Renewables – 1.3GW
• Firth of Forth Zone, SeaGreen Wind Energy Ltd equally owned by SSE
Renewables and Fluor – 3.5GW
• Dogger Bank Zone, the Forewind Consortium equally owned by each of SSE
Renewables, RWE Npower Renewables, Statoil and Statkraft – 9GW
• Hornsea Zone, Siemens Project Ventures and Mainstream Renewable Power,
a consortium equally owned by Mainstream Renewable Power and Siemens
Project Ventures and involving Hochtief Construction – 4GW
• Norfolk Bank Zone, East Anglia Offshore Wind Ltd equally owned by Scottish
Power Renewables and Vattenfall Vindkraft – 7.2GW
• Hastings Zone, Eon Climate and Renewables UK – 0.6GW
• West of Isle of Wight Zone, Eneco New Energy – 0.9GW
• Bristol Channel Zone, RWE Npower Renewables – 1.5GW
• Irish Sea Zone, Centrica Renewable Energy and involving RES Group –
4.2GW.

The UK’s Round 3 projects represent a step-change in the industry. The 9 Zones in
Round 3 will see an estimated 46 projects/phases built over a 12 to 15 year period. The
first construction activity is touted to start as early as 2013 but the majority of activity is
expected to take place between 2016-2027.

The commitment to Round 3 has helped the UK begin to develop its supply chain with
manufacturers already being attracted by the size of the market.

It is essential that the conditions for investment are maintained so that projects can be
delivered and that the UK can develop a strong domestic supply chain. Concerns over
changes to the market mechanism by the new coalition government should be cleared
by the end of October 2010 with announcements expected on the Renewables
Obligation.

Scottish Territorial Waters
On 22 May 2008, The Crown Estate requested initial expressions of interest from
companies wishing to be considered for developing commercial scale windfarms within
Scottish territorial waters (STW). Following the initial registration process, The Crown
Estate invited registered companies to submit project proposals for assessment. By the
close of this application process it had received 23 site applications from a total of 14
development companies and consortia.

In February 2009, The Crown Estate announced that it would be offering exclusivity
agreements to companies and consortia for 10 sites. The agreements were made to
nine companies and consortia for sites totalling more than 6GW :

• Solway Firth, E.ON Climate & Renewables UK Developments – 300MW
• Wigtown Bay, Dong Wind (UK) Ltd – 280MW
• Kintyre, Airtricity Holdings (UK) Ltd – 378MW
• Islay, Airtricity Holdings (UK) Ltd – 680MW
• Argyll Array, Scottish Power Renewables – 1,500MW
• Beatrice, Airtricity Holdings UK Ltd & SeaEnergy Renewables Ltd – 920MW
• Inch Cape, NPower Renewables Ltd & SeaEnergy Renewables Ltd – 905MW
• Bell Rock, Airtricity/Fluor – 700MW (Abandoned, May 2010)
• Naert na Gaoithe, Mainstream Renewable Power Ltd – 360MW
• Forth Array, Fred Olsen Renewables Ltd – 415MW

STW projects are expected to be built between 2015-2025. Bell Rock was abandoned
by the developers due to radar conflict issues.

Demonstration Sites
Crown Estate released four new demonstration sites in August 2010 in response to the
need for a testing ground for the new generation of wind farms in deeper waters. The
sites incorporate two two-unit demonstrators and two larger (11 turbine and 100MW)
projects around the country. The leases will broadly mirror Round 1 with the first five
years seen as the key demonstration stage at reduced rents. After this the site will
continue under commercial terms.

The successful projects have timelines built into their contracts and some could be
operational for the start of Round 3 developments. More details about the projects’
timelines will become public towards the end of 2010. The demonstrator projects are
outlined below.

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those of the publishers.

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