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The World ROV Market 2010-2014 Report
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace    

Equipment ID   : 922
Equipment name   : The World ROV Market 2010-2014 Report
Category   : Research Reports
Specifications   : Name of the Report :
The World ROV Market 2010-2014

Contents

1 Summary .............17
1.1 Introduction ...........18
1.2 Underlying drivers ..........18
1.3 Technology ............19
1.4 The World WROV Market .........20
1.5 Conclusions ........ 21

2 Introduction to Unmanned Underwater Vehicles .........23
2.1 Vehicle Types .......24

3 Development and Evolution .......29
3.1 Classifications .........30
3.2 History & Development ........30
3.3 Changes in markets & applications .........31

4 Technology ..........35
4.1 ROV Elements .............36
4.2 Control and Simulation ............36
4.3 Navigation Sensors ........37
4.4 Acoustic Positioning Systems ...........40
4.5 ROV Dynamic Positioning Systems ..........45
4.6 Underwater Acoustic Imaging ............46
4.7 ROV Support Vessels and LAR systems ..........49
4.8 ROV Umbilicals and Winches ...........51
4.9 Frame Materials and Buoyancy ..........52
4.10 ROV Power ........53
4.11 Manipulators ........55
4.12 Cameras and Lights .........57
4.13 ROV Tooling .........60
4.14 Survey Sensors .........66

5 Applications ........71
5.1 Introduction .......72
5.2 Drilling Support .......... 72
5.3 Inspection, Repair & Maintenance ............73
5.4 Pipeline Operations..........74
5.5 Oil and Gas Exploration Phase .........77
5.6 Subsea Cables ...........81
5.7 Oil and Gas Decommissioning ...........84
5.8 Seabed Mining ...........86
5.9 Marine Renewable Energy ...........90
5.10 Research ............92
5.11 Aquaculture ...........97
5.12 Salvage.............97
5.13 Archeology ............. 99
5.14 Search & Rescue ...............99
5.15 Military & Security Applications .............100

6 Examples of ROVs ........105
6.1 Security & Inspection ROVs ...........106
6.2 Military ROVs ............107
6.3 Trenching, Burial and Mining ROVs ............110
6.4 Research ROVs ............112
6.5 Eyeball Class ROVs ............114
6.6 Light Work Class .........115
6.7 Work Class ROVs .........117

7 The World ROV Market ..........119
7.1 ROV Market Overview ............120
7.2 Macro-Economic Drivers ...........121
7.3 Pricing Assumptions ..........127
7.4 Active WROV Units: TOTAL ...........128
7.5 Active WROV Units: DRILL SUPPORT ..........129
7.6 Active WROV Units: FIELD SUPPORT ..........130
7.7 ROV Services Expenditure: TOTAL ..........131
7.8 Expenditure: DRILL SUPPORT ..........132
7.9 Expenditure: FIELD SUPPORT ..........133
7.10 Capital Expenditure ............134
7.11 Competitive Landscape – ROV Operators............135
7.12 ROV Operator Consolidation ............136
7.13 Competitive Landscape – ROV Manufacturers ...........137

8 Selected Company Profiles ..........139
8.1 ROV Manufacturers ..........140
8.2 ROV Operators .......143
8.3 Technology Providers .........145

Figures

Figure 1: WROV Operations – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .........20
Figure 2: WROV Capex – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .........21
Figure 3: Sentry AUV ............24
Figure 4: Eagle Ray AUV ............24
Figure 5: The Deep Drone ROV recovering debris from a downed aircraft ...... 25
Figure 6: Argus Rover .........26
Figure 7: VideoRay ...........26
Figure 8: Marine and Minerals Projects Seabed Crawler ...........27
Figure 9: Cable plough .............27
Figure 10: FOCUS 2 ROTV Being Recovered ...........28
Figure 11: Lockheed Martin Remote Multi-Mission Vehicle ..........28
Figure 12: Hydro Products RCV225 and RCV125 (1980) .........30
Figure 13: Jason 6,500m Depth Rated ROV .........31
Figure 14: Cable Burial Plough ..............32
Figure 15: LBV150SE-5 in hull inspection mode ...........32
Figure 16: K-Ster MCM ROV ...........33
Figure 17: Conceptual layout of the NEPTUNE (Canada) OOS ............33
Figure 18: SMD Seabed Mining System ..............34
Figure 19: The ISIS ROV containerized control room ...........36
Figure 20: The Stealth-2 ROV and control system ..........36
Figure 21: Example simulator imagery ..........37
Figure 22: Tritech LRPA200 4000m depth rated, 200m range altimeter .......... 37
Figure 23: Mini-Intelligent Pressure Sensor, titanium cased 6000m rated ....... 37
Figure 24: CompassPoint sensor ...............38
Figure 25: Tritech Intelligent Gyrocompass ..............38
Figure 26: NavQuest 300 DVL ...........39
Figure 27: Workhorse DVL ..............39
Figure 28: IXSEA PHINS INS ..........39
Figure 29: Sonardyne Lodestar INS .............39
Figure 30: Ultra-Short Baseline Technique .............40
Figure 31: Long Baseline Technique and Compatt Transponders (right) ......... 41
Figure 32: NASNet multiple user overview ..............42
Figure 33: NASNet Station (short extension) ............42
Figure 34: NASNet ROV hydrophone ..........42
Figure 35: NASNet MTrx unit ..........42
Figure 36: Sonardyne Scout USBL ........43
Figure 37: GIB-Plus Buoy ...........44
Figure 38: Gateway Buoy .........44
Figure 39: Short Baseline arrangement ........44
Figure 40: SBL transponder ..............44
Figure 41: PLSM Aqua-Metre R3000 ..........45
Figure 42: Combined acoustic & taut wire metrology .......45
Figure 43: ROV DP data flow and affects ............46
Figure 44: Tritech Super Seaking DST sonar display and unit (inset) ........ 47
Figure 45: 1171 OAS & Imaging Sonar equipment and imagery .............. 47
Figure 46: SRD Eclipse 240kHz multibeam imaging sonar .........48
Figure 47: DIDSON Imaging Sonar .............48
Figure 48: Visualisation of a pipeline inspection ...........48
Figure 49: Acoustic imagery from the Didson system ........48
Figure 50: Havila Phoenix subsea construction vessel ..........49
Figure 51: Stromek LARS .............50
Figure 52: Wire guided LARS with an ROV in its TMS garage .........50
Figure 53: Top Hat TMS .............50
Figure 54: ROV and TMS A-Frame LARS & Winch ...........51
Figure 55: MASH ROV Umbilical Winch (3400m of 34mm diameter cable) ..... 52
Figure 56: Videoray MROV and umbilical in transit case ............52
Figure 57: The MARUM Quest 4000m rated research all-electric ROV ........... 53
Figure 58: The Panther-XT all-electric ROV ..............54
Figure 59: AC Thruster .............54
Figure 60: Seaeye DC Thrusters on the Talisman AUV ...........54
Figure 61: 225HP HPU ...........55
Figure 62: Curvetech HTE Thruster ......55
Figure 63: Intelligent Valve Pack ........55
Figure 64: 13.5 Litre Compensator/Reservoir ........55
Figure 65: REMUS 600 AUV as seen from a Seabotix LBV (right) ......... 55
Figure 66: Manipulator tool-skid .........56
Figure 67: Titan 4 manipulator ........56
Figure 68: CSIP/ECA “ARM 5E” electronic manipulator .......56
Figure 69: Scandredge heavy duty ROV manipulator ..........56
Figure 70: Pan and Tilt cameras .............57
Figure 71: Titan Wrist Camera ................57
Figure 72: ManipCam MD 4000 ..........57
Figure 73: HDTV ROV Camera .........57
Figure 74: Crystal Cam micro video .............57
Figure 75: Seamor MROV ........57
Figure 76: 4500m rated OE11-143 HID ............58
Figure 77: 6000m rated Deep Multi-SeaLite (Halogen) .........58
Figure 78: LED Lighting (arrowed) on the ROPOS Research ROV (Canada)........58
Figure 79: AC-ROV Laser Scaling System ...........59
Figure 80: Tritech SeaStripe laser ...........59
Figure 81: Tritech Typhoon VMS Camera ............59
Figure 82: Early version of the ISS Camera on Falcon ROV .........59
Figure 83: Hydraulic grinder ..........60
Figure 84: ROV tooling manifold ...........60
Figure 85: Marine Growth Preventer .............61
Figure 86: CleanHull ROV .........61
Figure 87: Operation modes of the RovingBat ROV ........61
Figure 88: VideoRay MROV with metal thickness gauge .....62
Figure 89: Well casings cut with AWJC .......62
Figure 90: DWC System in use subsea .............62
Figure 91: Enhanced Deepwater Subsea Tree ............63
Figure 92: Torque Verification Tool ..........63
Figure 93: Tornado Torque Tool ........63
Figure 94: Tool Deployment Unit ...........64
Figure 95: IFOKUS ROV Stabs ...........64
Figure 96: ROVCON Mk 2 visualization ...........64
Figure 97: ROVCON Mk 2 Tie-in Tool ..........64
Figure 98: Pipeline clamp system ........65
Figure 99: Core drill ..........65
Figure 100: ROVDRILL ...........66
Figure 101: Cores from ROVDRILL ........66
Figure 102: ACV03 Survey ROV ............67
Figure 103: Atlas Fansweep 30 on Wayamba AUV ..........67
Figure 104: SeaBat 7125 Dataset .........67
Figure 105: Screenshot of imagery from a Tritech Seaking SSS .......68
Figure 106: Synthetic Aperture Sonar Principle ...........68
Figure 107: SAS Imagery from the Hugin AUV ............69
Figure 108: Synthetic Aperture Sonar Processing ...........69
Figure 109: Sub-Bottom Profiler Data .........69
Figure 110: ROV imagery of the BOP ...........73
Figure 111: ROV installed pipeline clamp ...........73
Figure 112: Deep C CP Probe and light activated display ..........74
Figure 113: S-Lay .............74
Figure 114: J-Lay .........74
Figure 115: Pipelay vessel Calamity Jane ..............75
Figure 116: Neptune CPT system at Woolacombe ...........75
Figure 117: IHC Engineering Business Rockdump ROV ..............76
Figure 118: TSS Pipetracker on a Seaeye ROV ........76
Figure 119: Focus-2 equipment spread ...........77
Figure 120: Z3000 Node deployment from ROV...........78
Figure 121: Optowave seismic sensor ...........78
Figure 122: EM Sensors awaiting deployment ..........79
Figure 123: Post-operation seabed survey showing leg depressions ..........80
Figure 124: Ormen Lange Template ............80
Figure 125: Drillship West Navigator ...........80
Figure 126: Assembly of a Submarine Repeater ......81
Figure 127: The CS Sovereign cable lay and repair ship .........81
Figure 128: Greenland Connect route map ..........82
Figure 129: Tracked cable maintenance ROV with cable tracker ......82
Figure 130: Gradiometer for munitions sweep during cable route survey ........ 83
Figure 131: C&C Technologies/ASV 5500 Semi-submersible ..........83
Figure 132: Thanet Offshore Wind Farm and the Polar Prince .........84
Figure 133: Deployment of cable plough ..........84
Figure 134: MARCAS-3 CMROV ...........84
Figure 135 JetCut system in operation subsea .........85
Figure 136: Akers Buoyancy Tank Assemblies in the Frigg project .........85
Figure 137: Sonsub Innovator 250HP WROV.........86
Figure 138: Global distribution of significant seafloor hydrothermal deposits......86
Figure 139: Russian flag planted on the Arctic seabed by submersible (2007) 87
Figure 140: Marine & Mineral Projects Mining Tool ..........87
Figure 141: The Peace in Africa diamond mining vessel ...........88
Figure 142: Subsea Mining Tool ..............88
Figure 143: Sagar Nidhi research vessel .............88
Figure 144: The Spider ROV proposed for use by Neptune Minerals ........89
Figure 145: Pacific interests of Neptune Minerals ..........89
Figure 146: Seabed sampling using ROV ........90
Figure 147: WHOI Nereus in ROV mode .........90
Figure 148: Oyster wave energy device .............91
Figure 149: Location of Barrow Offshore Wind Farm & the LBT1 Tractor ........ 91
Figure 150: ROV & surface imagery of the EMEC Open Hydro turbine ........... 91
Figure 151: Heliocranchia piglet squid at 1,050m off Nigeria .................92
Figure 152: Magnapinna Squid in the Shell Perdido Field ............92
Figure 153: Doc Ricketts ROV performing push coring ..........93
Figure 154: The inside of the Environmental Sample Processor ..............93
Figure 155: Launch of the Doc Ricketts ROV from the RV Western Flyer ....... 93
Figure 156: Deploying a Niskin bottle through the ice-sheet ..............94
Figure 157: Deploying SeaSoar .............94
Figure 158: Possible future OOS technologies ..........94
Figure 159: GITEWS seabed sensor and surface buoy ........95
Figure 160: The ANTARES project concept .........95
Figure 161: ANTARES sensors (l) and subsea junction box (r)........95
Figure 162: Remotely Operated Cable-Laying System ..........96
Figure 163: Installation of seabed penetrometer system ..........96
Figure 164: SCINI ROV ..............97
Figure 165: LBV 150 subsea ........97
Figure 166: LBV 150 topside ..........97
Figure 167: Mort removal scoop on a Seaeye Falcon ........97
Figure 168: Scanning Sonar imagery mosaic of a destroyed oil rig .........98
Figure 169: PolRec/ROLS baseplate ..........98
Figure 170: PolRec concept ............98
Figure 171: Jason Junior Observing one of Titanic’s Staterooms ...........99
Figure 172: Novaray MROV with wing .........99
Figure 173: Demonstration SAR UGV ..........99
Figure 174:A Selection of US Military Unmanned Marine Vehicles ..........100
Figure 175: Mine Clearance Diver ...........101
Figure 176: ECA Olister ........101
Figure 177: Gayrobot Pluto with CM101 demolition charge ......101
Figure 178: US MH60-S Helicopter with the AMNS ........102
Figure 179: BAE Systems Archerfish EMDV ...........102
Figure 180: The iRobot Transphibian ..........103
Figure 181: RoboLobster ..........103
Figure 182: The US Navy’s Avalon DSRV ........103
Figure 183: The NATO IROV on exercises .........104
Figure 184: The NATO SRV1 on the Norwegian patrol ship Harstad ..........104
Figure 185: Triggerfish ROV ...........104
Figure 186: Sea Max 1 ............104
Figure 187: Seamor 300F ...........106
Figure 188: Sea Otter Mk 2 ........106
Figure 189: VideoRay Pro 4 ............107
Figure 190: LBV150SE-5 with crawler unit ...........107
Figure 191: LBV600XL2 with LARS .............107
Figure 192: ECA PAP Mark 5..........108
Figure 193: ECA Olister ...........108
Figure 194: K-Ster ..........108
Figure 195: Deep Drone 7200 ........108
Figure 196: SeaFox IQ .........109
Figure 197: SeaFox C as part of the ANMS .......109
Figure 198: AN/SLQ being launched from USS Dextrous in 2004 ..........109
Figure 199: Rock Dump ROV ...........110
Figure 200: Grab Excavation System ...........110
Figure 201: IHC Engineering Business BPL3 ..........110
Figure 202: CTC Marine Projects Ultra Trencher .........111
Figure 203: Capjet cable burial ROV ........111
Figure 204: Seafloor Mining Tool Concept ..........112
Figure 205: Victor research ROV .........112
Figure 206: KAIKO 7000 .........113
Figure 207: Hercules ROV ......113
Figure 208: Hydra Minimum .......114
Figure 209: Perseo GT ............114
Figure 210: Topside equipment ............114
Figure 211: Control Unit ..........114
Figure 212: Seaeye Lynx ...........115
Figure 213: Lynx Control Room ..........115
Figure 214: Super Mowhawk ........115
Figure 215: Topside equipment .........115
Figure 216: H1000 ROV ................116
Figure 217: Sub Atlantic Comanche with Innovatum Gradiometer .........116
Figure 218: Saab Seaeye Jaguar .......... 117
Figure 219: Hydra Millenium Plus ............... 117
Figure 220: PSS Triton XLX .............118
Figure 221: Schilling UHD ............118
Figure 222: Global Primary Energy Demand 1966-2008 .............121
Figure 223: Global Oil Supply 1930-2025 ... 121
Figure 224: Global Oil Supply Mix ........122
Figure 225: Global Natural Gas Supply Mix  122
Figure 226: Offshore Drilling Activity by Region 2004-2013 ...........123
Figure 227: Global Drilling Activity by Water Depth 2004-2013 ............123
Figure 228: Installed Base of Offshore Pipelines 1950-2014 ..........124
Figure 229: Annual Offshore Pipeline Installations 1950-2014 .......124
Figure 230: Global Subsea Completions by Region 1994-2015 .........125
Figure 231: Global Subsea Completions by Water Depth 1994-2015 ............ 125
Figure 232: Installed Base of Offshore Fixed Platforms 1950-2014 ............... 126
Figure 233: Subsea Well Abandonments 2003-2015 .............126
Figure 234: Pricing Assumptions (Indexed) 2005-2014 .........127
Figure 235: WROV TOTAL – Active Units 2005-2014 ..................128
Figure 236: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ................... 129
Figure 237: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ............130
Figure 238: WROV TOTAL – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .............131
Figure 239: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ....... 132
Figure 240: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ....... 133
Figure 241: WROV Capex – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ...........134
Figure 242: Work-class ROV Operator Fleet ...........135

Tables

Table 1: WROV Operations – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ........20
Table 2: WROV Capex – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ........ 21
Table 3: WROV TOTAL – Active Units 2005-2014 ...........127
Table 4: WROV TOTAL – Active Units 2005-2014 ..........128
Table 5: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ............129
Table 6: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ........130
Table 7: WROV TOTAL – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ............131
Table 8: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ............ 132
Table 9: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ............ 133
Table 10: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .......... 134

3 Development and Evolution

In the mid 1970s there were still only three ROVs in commercial use, but by the mid
1980s this had grown to around the 300 mark and at the end of the 1990s the number
built had grown by another order of magnitude.

Move to deepwater
By the end of the 1990s, ROVs had become more reliable and a great deal had been
learnt about tooling and operational interfaces. Operations became more complex and
possible at greater depths with deepwater ROVs being developed in many countries
including Canada, China, France, Japan, Norway, UK and the USA. Special cases
included a number of 6,000m (and deeper) rated vehicles developed for research and
academic work, but mainstream units were now available with 2,000m and 3,000m
ratings. Dedicated deepwater ROV vessels are now included in a number of major
subsea contractors fleets.

Smart ROVs
ROV control systems have become increasingly complex and more powerful, with
operators now able to act increasingly as a supervisor for the majority of routine
operations and only directly control the vehicle during complex operations. ROV autopilot
systems have been developed by ROV manufacturers and software companies
(such as SeeByte) and these have benefited from commercial, off the shelf availability of
sensors such as Doppler velocity logs and inertial navigation systems that were
previously restricted to the military sector. The use of such systems allows the ROV to
be located with a much greater surety of position than when relying on conventional
acoustic positioning systems alone, especially in deepwater and in a very harsh acoustic
environment.

ROV operations can be simulated to a high degree of realism for both training and
mission design and graphical visualisation software allows the representation of nonvisual
sensed data in a manner that allows the operator to see the results of acoustic
and laser scanned data when visibility is so poor that conventional cameras cannot be
used. In an effort to reduce the number of personnel working offshore, some companies
have developed ROV control systems that can be operated from an office ashore while
the ROV is far offshore in a manner very similar to the way that some unmanned aerial
vehicles flown in Iraq were controlled from mainland USA.

Hybrids on the horizon
Vehicles that attempt to combine the manoeuvrability, manipulator and work
characteristics of an ROV with the freedom of an AUV are being developed, with a
number of prototypes appearing in the early 2000s. As 2010 approached, several of
these projects are again being promoted and taken forward, with initial field deployments
being mooted for 2011. Adoption of hybrid intervention vehicles will allow an expensive
component of routine field maintenance (the ROV support vessel) to be partially
removed in situations where the vehicle could remain on location in a subsea field, or be
deployed from a floating production platform. Main contenders include Swimmer, PAIV
and SAUVIM – though it is unclear on the ability of the latter vehicle to be freed from its
links to the US military and to operate in the worldwide commercial sphere.

3.3 Changes in markets & applications
Submarine cables
Fibre-optic (as opposed to copper) telecommunications cables were introduced to the
marine environment in 1988 and over the next 9 years the investment in fibre-optic
cables totalled $19.8 bn driven by the almost exponential growth in internet traffic and
the need for reliable global telecommunications. The major market change in the late
1990s and early 2000s was the growth and then collapse of this submarine cable.

4 Technology

The underwater environment, it is not wave action that is of concern but rather tidal and
oceanic currents.
DP systems provide commands to individual thrusters based on predictions of what the
vehicle’s motion will actually be (as a result of a history of external forces acting on the
vehicle) compared with the desired motion or position. ROV DP systems have few
sources of position reference available to them when compared to surface vessels (that
can access sources including multiple GPS systems, laser and radar referencing to
surface platforms), but those that are available include DVL, heading and motion
sensors, altimeters and acoustic positioning systems. The data from the various
reference sensors is transmitted via the ROV umbilical back to the surface vessel where
a DP computer predicts the motion of the vehicle and so computes the necessary
thruster commands.

The majority of WROV manufacturers have developed some form of DP system and are
supplying them as part of a standard suite of equipment. DP systems have either been
developed wholly in-house or with the assistance of specialist providers such as
SeeByte (UK). It should be noted that the brains of an ROV DP system actually resides
in the control room computer systems rather than on the vehicle itself. The same applies
(in the majority of cases) to INS systems.

Tasks that could benefit from ROV DP include pipeline and riser inspection. Risers are
pipes that carry oil from seabed pipelines to floating or fixed production platforms and
must be routinely inspected for structural damage and fatigue. Pipeline risers to floaters
move in response to current and wave action and the use of autonomous control
software that maintains the ROV at the correct distance, orientation and inclination to the
riser, whilst following it from seabed to surface, represents a significant step in reducing
operator fatigue and may possibly improve the data quality from the inspection.

Case Study – Schilling StationKeep
The Schilling StationKeep system has been in use for a number of years and has five
operating modes:
• Full StationKeep – the control system maintains ROV position against currents
and tether motion. On operator input, mode de-activates.
• Semi-StationKeep – operator’s hand movements will result in ROV movement
and then the control system will keep ROV at new position.
• Cartesian Displacement – allows the operator to specify movement in X, Y and
Z axes.
• Polar Displacement – allows operator to specify a distance and bearing to
move.
• AutoTrack – interfaces with external inputs (pipe-tracking sensors for example).

Case Study – SeeByte SeeTrack Offshore V2.2
SeeTrack Offshore is a DP system that can be retrofitted to ROV control systems
provided there are outputs available from a DVL and a heading reference system. The
system provides station-keeping and point and click ROV operation – once the operator
selects a destination position, the DP system compensates for the effect of currents.
Added functionality is available with an optional tracking module that can accept and
process data from acoustic imaging systems and pipe-trackers.

4.6 Underwater Acoustic Imaging
Visibility underwater is often very limited: the ambient light levels can fall to zero as
depth increases: any sediment that is washed off the seabed by a vehicles thrusters will
remain in suspension for some time, occluding any view. ROVs use acoustic systems
that have their roots in the WWII Sound Navigation and Ranging (sonar) technology but
that can now not only detect and provide ranges to targets, but can also classify features
and objects.

In order to provide information about what lies ahead of the ROV, sonar beams are
electronically scanned over a sector, or physically rotated to collect data. Different sonar
head units are selected for different ranges and resolutions and the speed at which they
scan (and thus build up an acoustic image) will also vary. Multiple sonar heads can be
used simultaneously to give the operator finely detailed close range information, or data

5 Applications

A WROV was used to operate the suction pile system on the templates (note the two
hatches on top of each pile column) so that the template could be secured in the soft
seabed. Drilling through the templates commenced in November 2005 from the drill ship
West Navigator, followed by installation of subsea wellhead control systems. The field
officially started production in late 2007. Drilling continued from the West Navigator (on
Template B) until the vessel suffered blowback damage while trying to disconnect from a
well in severe weather conditions in early 2008.

A much feared incident, blowbacks are the uncontrolled release of wellhead gas,
normally after inadvertently piercing gas deposits near the surface. Unchecked blowback
can cause catastrophic damage and drilling was stopped until repairs were made. The
Leiv Erikson drilling rig was brought in to compensate for the delays in drilling, drilling will
continue until at least 2013. The third of the Ormen Lange Templates was installed using
the Heerema Marine Contrctors heavy lift semi-submersible Thialf in May 2009. The
fourth template will be installed in deeper water than the other three and there are likely
to be significant challenges to be overcome when choosing a route for the connecting
pipelines.

5.6 Subsea Cables
Telecommunications Cables
The first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fibre was TAT-8, which went into
operation in 1988. Modern optical fibre repeaters use a solid-state optical amplifier,
usually an Erbium-doped fibre amplifier. The system also permits wavelength-division
multiplexing, which dramatically increases the capacity of the fibre. The optic fibre used
in undersea cables is chosen for its exceptional clarity, permitting runs of more than 100
kilometres between repeaters to minimize the number of amplifiers and the distortion
they cause. The cables, branching units and repeaters are all fabricated and assembled
onshore and long sections of cable are loaded onto dedicated vessels so that they can
be deployed in a single, continuous operation.

The market for submarine cable systems enjoyed a mini-boom in 2007/2008, with nearly
every one of the 42 cable laying ships occupied. According to a report by T Soja &
Associates, around 85,000 km of cable is expected to be installed annually over the next
few years, which is comparable to the activity in 2000, when 100,000 km was installed.
The apparent upswing in subsea cable activity is partly due to the addition of new routes
to under-connected continents with developing economies, such as Africa, but the more
important driver is the rising demand for intercontinental capacity.

ROVs are used during the initial route survey, the actual lay process as well as for
ongoing maintenance and repairs. The subsea cable market, with its demanding
reliability requirements and specialist installation skills, is dominated by manufacturing
and installation contractors Alcatel-Lucent and Tyco Telecommunications and by repair
and maintenance contractors such as Global Marine Systems.

Case Study – Greenlands new cable network
Alcatel-Lucent installed a 2,100 km section of Tele Greenlands new submarine cable
network, with the lay vessel Ile de Sein arriving in Nuuk in September 2008.

6 Examples of ROVs

Perry Slingsby Systems Triton XLX
The Triton XLX is a heavy WROV available with 150 or 250 HP of onboard hydraulic
power and with depth ratings of either 3,000 or 4,000m. The high power version can
manage a payload of up to 550kg. Vehicle length is 3.3m, height is 2m and weight is 4.9
tonnes for the 150HP (5.6 tonnes for the 250HP version). The eight hydraulically
powered thrusters provide 1,100kg of forward thrust and 900kg of vertical thrust. The
XLX has a DP/auto pilot system and is operated from a TMS (available in a Top Hat
configuration with between 350 and 650 of tether, or a garage style version with up to
1000m of tether. Standard workskids for the vehicle include those for survey and
bathymetry, suction pile installation, variable ballast, jetting or tooling.

The Triton XLX saw its first orders in 2008 and is now operated by companies including
Fugro, Aquanos, Mermaid Offshore, Oceanteam 2000, DOF Subsea, Integrated Subsea
Services. DOF will be installing one of the vehicles onboard the Olympic Zeus vessel for
operations in the Curlew field in 2009.

Schilling UHD
The UHD is an ultra-heavy WROV with a depth rating of 4,000m (3,000m optional) and
installed power of up to 200HP (100, 150 or 200HP optional) that was first delivered in
2006. The UHD is normally operated from a TMS that can be extended to a maximum of
900m of 35mm diameter tether (used for pipelay observation). The standard 150HP
vehicle weighs 5 tonne and can manage a payload of 300kg and a through-frame lift of
3.5 tonnes. The UHD is 3m in length and can be provided with either seven or eight
SubAtlantic thrusters that provide forward thrust of 850kg and a vertical (upwards) thrust
of 700kg. Operation is aided by Schilling’s StationKeep DP/auto-pilot system that uses
inputs from onboard sensors including a DVL and FOG. There are two manipulators on
the UHD, with a standard fit of one Titan 4 and one Rigmaster unit providing seven
function and five functions respectively. The vehicle has been ordered by operators
including Acergy, Phoenix International, Allseas, Bourbon (through DNT Offshore),
Global Industries, DOF Subsea, OceanWorks International and C-Innovation.

7 The World ROV Market

7.6 Active WROV Units: FIELD SUPPORT
• Over the last five years the growth of WROVs used within field support has
exceeded that of those required for drilling operations, due to the broad range of
tasks that are now carried out by ROVs and huge volumes of infrastructure installed
offshore over the period.
• A total growth of 47% is estimated 2005-2008, but the last year has seen a decline
of approximately 2%. This is less severe than that of drill support – in some cases
the extension of drilling operations/contracts is more cost sensitive than field support
operations; many of which are a necessity for the continuous operation of offshore
installations.
• Between 2009 and 2014, strong recovery and growth is expected, with the number
of field support WROVs required reaching 267 per year by 2014 – a growth of 32%
over the period.
• Asia Pacific will see some of the most significant growth, with 25% of all field
support ROVs operating in this region over the next five years.

Disclaimer
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the written permission of the publishers. Additional copies of this study may be purchased
at a specially discounted rate.

The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate, but no representation
or warranty, express or implied, is made by the publisher as to the completeness, accuracy
or fairness of any information contained in it and we do not accept any responsibility in
relation to such information whether fact, opinion or conclusion that the reader may draw.
The views expressed are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent
those of the publishers.

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The World ROV Market 2010-2014

Contents

1 Summary .............17
1.1 Introduction ...........18
1.2 Underlying drivers ..........18
1.3 Technology ............19
1.4 The World WROV Market .........20
1.5 Conclusions ........ 21

2 Introduction to Unmanned Underwater Vehicles .........23
2.1 Vehicle Types .......24

3 Development and Evolution .......29
3.1 Classifications .........30
3.2 History & Development ........30
3.3 Changes in markets & applications .........31

4 Technology ..........35
4.1 ROV Elements .............36
4.2 Control and Simulation ............36
4.3 Navigation Sensors ........37
4.4 Acoustic Positioning Systems ...........40
4.5 ROV Dynamic Positioning Systems ..........45
4.6 Underwater Acoustic Imaging ............46
4.7 ROV Support Vessels and LAR systems ..........49
4.8 ROV Umbilicals and Winches ...........51
4.9 Frame Materials and Buoyancy ..........52
4.10 ROV Power ........53
4.11 Manipulators ........55
4.12 Cameras and Lights .........57
4.13 ROV Tooling .........60
4.14 Survey Sensors .........66

5 Applications ........71
5.1 Introduction .......72
5.2 Drilling Support .......... 72
5.3 Inspection, Repair & Maintenance ............73
5.4 Pipeline Operations..........74
5.5 Oil and Gas Exploration Phase .........77
5.6 Subsea Cables ...........81
5.7 Oil and Gas Decommissioning ...........84
5.8 Seabed Mining ...........86
5.9 Marine Renewable Energy ...........90
5.10 Research ............92
5.11 Aquaculture ...........97
5.12 Salvage.............97
5.13 Archeology ............. 99
5.14 Search & Rescue ...............99
5.15 Military & Security Applications .............100

6 Examples of ROVs ........105
6.1 Security & Inspection ROVs ...........106
6.2 Military ROVs ............107
6.3 Trenching, Burial and Mining ROVs ............110
6.4 Research ROVs ............112
6.5 Eyeball Class ROVs ............114
6.6 Light Work Class .........115
6.7 Work Class ROVs .........117

7 The World ROV Market ..........119
7.1 ROV Market Overview ............120
7.2 Macro-Economic Drivers ...........121
7.3 Pricing Assumptions ..........127
7.4 Active WROV Units: TOTAL ...........128
7.5 Active WROV Units: DRILL SUPPORT ..........129
7.6 Active WROV Units: FIELD SUPPORT ..........130
7.7 ROV Services Expenditure: TOTAL ..........131
7.8 Expenditure: DRILL SUPPORT ..........132
7.9 Expenditure: FIELD SUPPORT ..........133
7.10 Capital Expenditure ............134
7.11 Competitive Landscape – ROV Operators............135
7.12 ROV Operator Consolidation ............136
7.13 Competitive Landscape – ROV Manufacturers ...........137

8 Selected Company Profiles ..........139
8.1 ROV Manufacturers ..........140
8.2 ROV Operators .......143
8.3 Technology Providers .........145

Figures

Figure 1: WROV Operations – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .........20
Figure 2: WROV Capex – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .........21
Figure 3: Sentry AUV ............24
Figure 4: Eagle Ray AUV ............24
Figure 5: The Deep Drone ROV recovering debris from a downed aircraft ...... 25
Figure 6: Argus Rover .........26
Figure 7: VideoRay ...........26
Figure 8: Marine and Minerals Projects Seabed Crawler ...........27
Figure 9: Cable plough .............27
Figure 10: FOCUS 2 ROTV Being Recovered ...........28
Figure 11: Lockheed Martin Remote Multi-Mission Vehicle ..........28
Figure 12: Hydro Products RCV225 and RCV125 (1980) .........30
Figure 13: Jason 6,500m Depth Rated ROV .........31
Figure 14: Cable Burial Plough ..............32
Figure 15: LBV150SE-5 in hull inspection mode ...........32
Figure 16: K-Ster MCM ROV ...........33
Figure 17: Conceptual layout of the NEPTUNE (Canada) OOS ............33
Figure 18: SMD Seabed Mining System ..............34
Figure 19: The ISIS ROV containerized control room ...........36
Figure 20: The Stealth-2 ROV and control system ..........36
Figure 21: Example simulator imagery ..........37
Figure 22: Tritech LRPA200 4000m depth rated, 200m range altimeter .......... 37
Figure 23: Mini-Intelligent Pressure Sensor, titanium cased 6000m rated ....... 37
Figure 24: CompassPoint sensor ...............38
Figure 25: Tritech Intelligent Gyrocompass ..............38
Figure 26: NavQuest 300 DVL ...........39
Figure 27: Workhorse DVL ..............39
Figure 28: IXSEA PHINS INS ..........39
Figure 29: Sonardyne Lodestar INS .............39
Figure 30: Ultra-Short Baseline Technique .............40
Figure 31: Long Baseline Technique and Compatt Transponders (right) ......... 41
Figure 32: NASNet multiple user overview ..............42
Figure 33: NASNet Station (short extension) ............42
Figure 34: NASNet ROV hydrophone ..........42
Figure 35: NASNet MTrx unit ..........42
Figure 36: Sonardyne Scout USBL ........43
Figure 37: GIB-Plus Buoy ...........44
Figure 38: Gateway Buoy .........44
Figure 39: Short Baseline arrangement ........44
Figure 40: SBL transponder ..............44
Figure 41: PLSM Aqua-Metre R3000 ..........45
Figure 42: Combined acoustic & taut wire metrology .......45
Figure 43: ROV DP data flow and affects ............46
Figure 44: Tritech Super Seaking DST sonar display and unit (inset) ........ 47
Figure 45: 1171 OAS & Imaging Sonar equipment and imagery .............. 47
Figure 46: SRD Eclipse 240kHz multibeam imaging sonar .........48
Figure 47: DIDSON Imaging Sonar .............48
Figure 48: Visualisation of a pipeline inspection ...........48
Figure 49: Acoustic imagery from the Didson system ........48
Figure 50: Havila Phoenix subsea construction vessel ..........49
Figure 51: Stromek LARS .............50
Figure 52: Wire guided LARS with an ROV in its TMS garage .........50
Figure 53: Top Hat TMS .............50
Figure 54: ROV and TMS A-Frame LARS & Winch ...........51
Figure 55: MASH ROV Umbilical Winch (3400m of 34mm diameter cable) ..... 52
Figure 56: Videoray MROV and umbilical in transit case ............52
Figure 57: The MARUM Quest 4000m rated research all-electric ROV ........... 53
Figure 58: The Panther-XT all-electric ROV ..............54
Figure 59: AC Thruster .............54
Figure 60: Seaeye DC Thrusters on the Talisman AUV ...........54
Figure 61: 225HP HPU ...........55
Figure 62: Curvetech HTE Thruster ......55
Figure 63: Intelligent Valve Pack ........55
Figure 64: 13.5 Litre Compensator/Reservoir ........55
Figure 65: REMUS 600 AUV as seen from a Seabotix LBV (right) ......... 55
Figure 66: Manipulator tool-skid .........56
Figure 67: Titan 4 manipulator ........56
Figure 68: CSIP/ECA “ARM 5E” electronic manipulator .......56
Figure 69: Scandredge heavy duty ROV manipulator ..........56
Figure 70: Pan and Tilt cameras .............57
Figure 71: Titan Wrist Camera ................57
Figure 72: ManipCam MD 4000 ..........57
Figure 73: HDTV ROV Camera .........57
Figure 74: Crystal Cam micro video .............57
Figure 75: Seamor MROV ........57
Figure 76: 4500m rated OE11-143 HID ............58
Figure 77: 6000m rated Deep Multi-SeaLite (Halogen) .........58
Figure 78: LED Lighting (arrowed) on the ROPOS Research ROV (Canada)........58
Figure 79: AC-ROV Laser Scaling System ...........59
Figure 80: Tritech SeaStripe laser ...........59
Figure 81: Tritech Typhoon VMS Camera ............59
Figure 82: Early version of the ISS Camera on Falcon ROV .........59
Figure 83: Hydraulic grinder ..........60
Figure 84: ROV tooling manifold ...........60
Figure 85: Marine Growth Preventer .............61
Figure 86: CleanHull ROV .........61
Figure 87: Operation modes of the RovingBat ROV ........61
Figure 88: VideoRay MROV with metal thickness gauge .....62
Figure 89: Well casings cut with AWJC .......62
Figure 90: DWC System in use subsea .............62
Figure 91: Enhanced Deepwater Subsea Tree ............63
Figure 92: Torque Verification Tool ..........63
Figure 93: Tornado Torque Tool ........63
Figure 94: Tool Deployment Unit ...........64
Figure 95: IFOKUS ROV Stabs ...........64
Figure 96: ROVCON Mk 2 visualization ...........64
Figure 97: ROVCON Mk 2 Tie-in Tool ..........64
Figure 98: Pipeline clamp system ........65
Figure 99: Core drill ..........65
Figure 100: ROVDRILL ...........66
Figure 101: Cores from ROVDRILL ........66
Figure 102: ACV03 Survey ROV ............67
Figure 103: Atlas Fansweep 30 on Wayamba AUV ..........67
Figure 104: SeaBat 7125 Dataset .........67
Figure 105: Screenshot of imagery from a Tritech Seaking SSS .......68
Figure 106: Synthetic Aperture Sonar Principle ...........68
Figure 107: SAS Imagery from the Hugin AUV ............69
Figure 108: Synthetic Aperture Sonar Processing ...........69
Figure 109: Sub-Bottom Profiler Data .........69
Figure 110: ROV imagery of the BOP ...........73
Figure 111: ROV installed pipeline clamp ...........73
Figure 112: Deep C CP Probe and light activated display ..........74
Figure 113: S-Lay .............74
Figure 114: J-Lay .........74
Figure 115: Pipelay vessel Calamity Jane ..............75
Figure 116: Neptune CPT system at Woolacombe ...........75
Figure 117: IHC Engineering Business Rockdump ROV ..............76
Figure 118: TSS Pipetracker on a Seaeye ROV ........76
Figure 119: Focus-2 equipment spread ...........77
Figure 120: Z3000 Node deployment from ROV...........78
Figure 121: Optowave seismic sensor ...........78
Figure 122: EM Sensors awaiting deployment ..........79
Figure 123: Post-operation seabed survey showing leg depressions ..........80
Figure 124: Ormen Lange Template ............80
Figure 125: Drillship West Navigator ...........80
Figure 126: Assembly of a Submarine Repeater ......81
Figure 127: The CS Sovereign cable lay and repair ship .........81
Figure 128: Greenland Connect route map ..........82
Figure 129: Tracked cable maintenance ROV with cable tracker ......82
Figure 130: Gradiometer for munitions sweep during cable route survey ........ 83
Figure 131: C&C Technologies/ASV 5500 Semi-submersible ..........83
Figure 132: Thanet Offshore Wind Farm and the Polar Prince .........84
Figure 133: Deployment of cable plough ..........84
Figure 134: MARCAS-3 CMROV ...........84
Figure 135 JetCut system in operation subsea .........85
Figure 136: Akers Buoyancy Tank Assemblies in the Frigg project .........85
Figure 137: Sonsub Innovator 250HP WROV.........86
Figure 138: Global distribution of significant seafloor hydrothermal deposits......86
Figure 139: Russian flag planted on the Arctic seabed by submersible (2007) 87
Figure 140: Marine & Mineral Projects Mining Tool ..........87
Figure 141: The Peace in Africa diamond mining vessel ...........88
Figure 142: Subsea Mining Tool ..............88
Figure 143: Sagar Nidhi research vessel .............88
Figure 144: The Spider ROV proposed for use by Neptune Minerals ........89
Figure 145: Pacific interests of Neptune Minerals ..........89
Figure 146: Seabed sampling using ROV ........90
Figure 147: WHOI Nereus in ROV mode .........90
Figure 148: Oyster wave energy device .............91
Figure 149: Location of Barrow Offshore Wind Farm & the LBT1 Tractor ........ 91
Figure 150: ROV & surface imagery of the EMEC Open Hydro turbine ........... 91
Figure 151: Heliocranchia piglet squid at 1,050m off Nigeria .................92
Figure 152: Magnapinna Squid in the Shell Perdido Field ............92
Figure 153: Doc Ricketts ROV performing push coring ..........93
Figure 154: The inside of the Environmental Sample Processor ..............93
Figure 155: Launch of the Doc Ricketts ROV from the RV Western Flyer ....... 93
Figure 156: Deploying a Niskin bottle through the ice-sheet ..............94
Figure 157: Deploying SeaSoar .............94
Figure 158: Possible future OOS technologies ..........94
Figure 159: GITEWS seabed sensor and surface buoy ........95
Figure 160: The ANTARES project concept .........95
Figure 161: ANTARES sensors (l) and subsea junction box (r)........95
Figure 162: Remotely Operated Cable-Laying System ..........96
Figure 163: Installation of seabed penetrometer system ..........96
Figure 164: SCINI ROV ..............97
Figure 165: LBV 150 subsea ........97
Figure 166: LBV 150 topside ..........97
Figure 167: Mort removal scoop on a Seaeye Falcon ........97
Figure 168: Scanning Sonar imagery mosaic of a destroyed oil rig .........98
Figure 169: PolRec/ROLS baseplate ..........98
Figure 170: PolRec concept ............98
Figure 171: Jason Junior Observing one of Titanic’s Staterooms ...........99
Figure 172: Novaray MROV with wing .........99
Figure 173: Demonstration SAR UGV ..........99
Figure 174:A Selection of US Military Unmanned Marine Vehicles ..........100
Figure 175: Mine Clearance Diver ...........101
Figure 176: ECA Olister ........101
Figure 177: Gayrobot Pluto with CM101 demolition charge ......101
Figure 178: US MH60-S Helicopter with the AMNS ........102
Figure 179: BAE Systems Archerfish EMDV ...........102
Figure 180: The iRobot Transphibian ..........103
Figure 181: RoboLobster ..........103
Figure 182: The US Navy’s Avalon DSRV ........103
Figure 183: The NATO IROV on exercises .........104
Figure 184: The NATO SRV1 on the Norwegian patrol ship Harstad ..........104
Figure 185: Triggerfish ROV ...........104
Figure 186: Sea Max 1 ............104
Figure 187: Seamor 300F ...........106
Figure 188: Sea Otter Mk 2 ........106
Figure 189: VideoRay Pro 4 ............107
Figure 190: LBV150SE-5 with crawler unit ...........107
Figure 191: LBV600XL2 with LARS .............107
Figure 192: ECA PAP Mark 5..........108
Figure 193: ECA Olister ...........108
Figure 194: K-Ster ..........108
Figure 195: Deep Drone 7200 ........108
Figure 196: SeaFox IQ .........109
Figure 197: SeaFox C as part of the ANMS .......109
Figure 198: AN/SLQ being launched from USS Dextrous in 2004 ..........109
Figure 199: Rock Dump ROV ...........110
Figure 200: Grab Excavation System ...........110
Figure 201: IHC Engineering Business BPL3 ..........110
Figure 202: CTC Marine Projects Ultra Trencher .........111
Figure 203: Capjet cable burial ROV ........111
Figure 204: Seafloor Mining Tool Concept ..........112
Figure 205: Victor research ROV .........112
Figure 206: KAIKO 7000 .........113
Figure 207: Hercules ROV ......113
Figure 208: Hydra Minimum .......114
Figure 209: Perseo GT ............114
Figure 210: Topside equipment ............114
Figure 211: Control Unit ..........114
Figure 212: Seaeye Lynx ...........115
Figure 213: Lynx Control Room ..........115
Figure 214: Super Mowhawk ........115
Figure 215: Topside equipment .........115
Figure 216: H1000 ROV ................116
Figure 217: Sub Atlantic Comanche with Innovatum Gradiometer .........116
Figure 218: Saab Seaeye Jaguar .......... 117
Figure 219: Hydra Millenium Plus ............... 117
Figure 220: PSS Triton XLX .............118
Figure 221: Schilling UHD ............118
Figure 222: Global Primary Energy Demand 1966-2008 .............121
Figure 223: Global Oil Supply 1930-2025 ... 121
Figure 224: Global Oil Supply Mix ........122
Figure 225: Global Natural Gas Supply Mix  122
Figure 226: Offshore Drilling Activity by Region 2004-2013 ...........123
Figure 227: Global Drilling Activity by Water Depth 2004-2013 ............123
Figure 228: Installed Base of Offshore Pipelines 1950-2014 ..........124
Figure 229: Annual Offshore Pipeline Installations 1950-2014 .......124
Figure 230: Global Subsea Completions by Region 1994-2015 .........125
Figure 231: Global Subsea Completions by Water Depth 1994-2015 ............ 125
Figure 232: Installed Base of Offshore Fixed Platforms 1950-2014 ............... 126
Figure 233: Subsea Well Abandonments 2003-2015 .............126
Figure 234: Pricing Assumptions (Indexed) 2005-2014 .........127
Figure 235: WROV TOTAL – Active Units 2005-2014 ..................128
Figure 236: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ................... 129
Figure 237: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ............130
Figure 238: WROV TOTAL – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .............131
Figure 239: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ....... 132
Figure 240: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ....... 133
Figure 241: WROV Capex – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ...........134
Figure 242: Work-class ROV Operator Fleet ...........135

Tables

Table 1: WROV Operations – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ........20
Table 2: WROV Capex – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ........ 21
Table 3: WROV TOTAL – Active Units 2005-2014 ...........127
Table 4: WROV TOTAL – Active Units 2005-2014 ..........128
Table 5: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ............129
Table 6: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ........130
Table 7: WROV TOTAL – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ............131
Table 8: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ............ 132
Table 9: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ............ 133
Table 10: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .......... 134

3 Development and Evolution

In the mid 1970s there were still only three ROVs in commercial use, but by the mid
1980s this had grown to around the 300 mark and at the end of the 1990s the number
built had grown by another order of magnitude.

Move to deepwater
By the end of the 1990s, ROVs had become more reliable and a great deal had been
learnt about tooling and operational interfaces. Operations became more complex and
possible at greater depths with deepwater ROVs being developed in many countries
including Canada, China, France, Japan, Norway, UK and the USA. Special cases
included a number of 6,000m (and deeper) rated vehicles developed for research and
academic work, but mainstream units were now available with 2,000m and 3,000m
ratings. Dedicated deepwater ROV vessels are now included in a number of major
subsea contractors fleets.

Smart ROVs
ROV control systems have become increasingly complex and more powerful, with
operators now able to act increasingly as a supervisor for the majority of routine
operations and only directly control the vehicle during complex operations. ROV autopilot
systems have been developed by ROV manufacturers and software companies
(such as SeeByte) and these have benefited from commercial, off the shelf availability of
sensors such as Doppler velocity logs and inertial navigation systems that were
previously restricted to the military sector. The use of such systems allows the ROV to
be located with a much greater surety of position than when relying on conventional
acoustic positioning systems alone, especially in deepwater and in a very harsh acoustic
environment.

ROV operations can be simulated to a high degree of realism for both training and
mission design and graphical visualisation software allows the representation of nonvisual
sensed data in a manner that allows the operator to see the results of acoustic
and laser scanned data when visibility is so poor that conventional cameras cannot be
used. In an effort to reduce the number of personnel working offshore, some companies
have developed ROV control systems that can be operated from an office ashore while
the ROV is far offshore in a manner very similar to the way that some unmanned aerial
vehicles flown in Iraq were controlled from mainland USA.

Hybrids on the horizon
Vehicles that attempt to combine the manoeuvrability, manipulator and work
characteristics of an ROV with the freedom of an AUV are being developed, with a
number of prototypes appearing in the early 2000s. As 2010 approached, several of
these projects are again being promoted and taken forward, with initial field deployments
being mooted for 2011. Adoption of hybrid intervention vehicles will allow an expensive
component of routine field maintenance (the ROV support vessel) to be partially
removed in situations where the vehicle could remain on location in a subsea field, or be
deployed from a floating production platform. Main contenders include Swimmer, PAIV
and SAUVIM – though it is unclear on the ability of the latter vehicle to be freed from its
links to the US military and to operate in the worldwide commercial sphere.

3.3 Changes in markets & applications
Submarine cables
Fibre-optic (as opposed to copper) telecommunications cables were introduced to the
marine environment in 1988 and over the next 9 years the investment in fibre-optic
cables totalled $19.8 bn driven by the almost exponential growth in internet traffic and
the need for reliable global telecommunications. The major market change in the late
1990s and early 2000s was the growth and then collapse of this submarine cable.

4 Technology

The underwater environment, it is not wave action that is of concern but rather tidal and
oceanic currents.
DP systems provide commands to individual thrusters based on predictions of what the
vehicle’s motion will actually be (as a result of a history of external forces acting on the
vehicle) compared with the desired motion or position. ROV DP systems have few
sources of position reference available to them when compared to surface vessels (that
can access sources including multiple GPS systems, laser and radar referencing to
surface platforms), but those that are available include DVL, heading and motion
sensors, altimeters and acoustic positioning systems. The data from the various
reference sensors is transmitted via the ROV umbilical back to the surface vessel where
a DP computer predicts the motion of the vehicle and so computes the necessary
thruster commands.

The majority of WROV manufacturers have developed some form of DP system and are
supplying them as part of a standard suite of equipment. DP systems have either been
developed wholly in-house or with the assistance of specialist providers such as
SeeByte (UK). It should be noted that the brains of an ROV DP system actually resides
in the control room computer systems rather than on the vehicle itself. The same applies
(in the majority of cases) to INS systems.

Tasks that could benefit from ROV DP include pipeline and riser inspection. Risers are
pipes that carry oil from seabed pipelines to floating or fixed production platforms and
must be routinely inspected for structural damage and fatigue. Pipeline risers to floaters
move in response to current and wave action and the use of autonomous control
software that maintains the ROV at the correct distance, orientation and inclination to the
riser, whilst following it from seabed to surface, represents a significant step in reducing
operator fatigue and may possibly improve the data quality from the inspection.

Case Study – Schilling StationKeep
The Schilling StationKeep system has been in use for a number of years and has five
operating modes:
• Full StationKeep – the control system maintains ROV position against currents
and tether motion. On operator input, mode de-activates.
• Semi-StationKeep – operator’s hand movements will result in ROV movement
and then the control system will keep ROV at new position.
• Cartesian Displacement – allows the operator to specify movement in X, Y and
Z axes.
• Polar Displacement – allows operator to specify a distance and bearing to
move.
• AutoTrack – interfaces with external inputs (pipe-tracking sensors for example).

Case Study – SeeByte SeeTrack Offshore V2.2
SeeTrack Offshore is a DP system that can be retrofitted to ROV control systems
provided there are outputs available from a DVL and a heading reference system. The
system provides station-keeping and point and click ROV operation – once the operator
selects a destination position, the DP system compensates for the effect of currents.
Added functionality is available with an optional tracking module that can accept and
process data from acoustic imaging systems and pipe-trackers.

4.6 Underwater Acoustic Imaging
Visibility underwater is often very limited: the ambient light levels can fall to zero as
depth increases: any sediment that is washed off the seabed by a vehicles thrusters will
remain in suspension for some time, occluding any view. ROVs use acoustic systems
that have their roots in the WWII Sound Navigation and Ranging (sonar) technology but
that can now not only detect and provide ranges to targets, but can also classify features
and objects.

In order to provide information about what lies ahead of the ROV, sonar beams are
electronically scanned over a sector, or physically rotated to collect data. Different sonar
head units are selected for different ranges and resolutions and the speed at which they
scan (and thus build up an acoustic image) will also vary. Multiple sonar heads can be
used simultaneously to give the operator finely detailed close range information, or data

5 Applications

A WROV was used to operate the suction pile system on the templates (note the two
hatches on top of each pile column) so that the template could be secured in the soft
seabed. Drilling through the templates commenced in November 2005 from the drill ship
West Navigator, followed by installation of subsea wellhead control systems. The field
officially started production in late 2007. Drilling continued from the West Navigator (on
Template B) until the vessel suffered blowback damage while trying to disconnect from a
well in severe weather conditions in early 2008.

A much feared incident, blowbacks are the uncontrolled release of wellhead gas,
normally after inadvertently piercing gas deposits near the surface. Unchecked blowback
can cause catastrophic damage and drilling was stopped until repairs were made. The
Leiv Erikson drilling rig was brought in to compensate for the delays in drilling, drilling will
continue until at least 2013. The third of the Ormen Lange Templates was installed using
the Heerema Marine Contrctors heavy lift semi-submersible Thialf in May 2009. The
fourth template will be installed in deeper water than the other three and there are likely
to be significant challenges to be overcome when choosing a route for the connecting
pipelines.

5.6 Subsea Cables
Telecommunications Cables
The first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fibre was TAT-8, which went into
operation in 1988. Modern optical fibre repeaters use a solid-state optical amplifier,
usually an Erbium-doped fibre amplifier. The system also permits wavelength-division
multiplexing, which dramatically increases the capacity of the fibre. The optic fibre used
in undersea cables is chosen for its exceptional clarity, permitting runs of more than 100
kilometres between repeaters to minimize the number of amplifiers and the distortion
they cause. The cables, branching units and repeaters are all fabricated and assembled
onshore and long sections of cable are loaded onto dedicated vessels so that they can
be deployed in a single, continuous operation.

The market for submarine cable systems enjoyed a mini-boom in 2007/2008, with nearly
every one of the 42 cable laying ships occupied. According to a report by T Soja &
Associates, around 85,000 km of cable is expected to be installed annually over the next
few years, which is comparable to the activity in 2000, when 100,000 km was installed.
The apparent upswing in subsea cable activity is partly due to the addition of new routes
to under-connected continents with developing economies, such as Africa, but the more
important driver is the rising demand for intercontinental capacity.

ROVs are used during the initial route survey, the actual lay process as well as for
ongoing maintenance and repairs. The subsea cable market, with its demanding
reliability requirements and specialist installation skills, is dominated by manufacturing
and installation contractors Alcatel-Lucent and Tyco Telecommunications and by repair
and maintenance contractors such as Global Marine Systems.

Case Study – Greenlands new cable network
Alcatel-Lucent installed a 2,100 km section of Tele Greenlands new submarine cable
network, with the lay vessel Ile de Sein arriving in Nuuk in September 2008.

6 Examples of ROVs

Perry Slingsby Systems Triton XLX
The Triton XLX is a heavy WROV available with 150 or 250 HP of onboard hydraulic
power and with depth ratings of either 3,000 or 4,000m. The high power version can
manage a payload of up to 550kg. Vehicle length is 3.3m, height is 2m and weight is 4.9
tonnes for the 150HP (5.6 tonnes for the 250HP version). The eight hydraulically
powered thrusters provide 1,100kg of forward thrust and 900kg of vertical thrust. The
XLX has a DP/auto pilot system and is operated from a TMS (available in a Top Hat
configuration with between 350 and 650 of tether, or a garage style version with up to
1000m of tether. Standard workskids for the vehicle include those for survey and
bathymetry, suction pile installation, variable ballast, jetting or tooling.

The Triton XLX saw its first orders in 2008 and is now operated by companies including
Fugro, Aquanos, Mermaid Offshore, Oceanteam 2000, DOF Subsea, Integrated Subsea
Services. DOF will be installing one of the vehicles onboard the Olympic Zeus vessel for
operations in the Curlew field in 2009.

Schilling UHD
The UHD is an ultra-heavy WROV with a depth rating of 4,000m (3,000m optional) and
installed power of up to 200HP (100, 150 or 200HP optional) that was first delivered in
2006. The UHD is normally operated from a TMS that can be extended to a maximum of
900m of 35mm diameter tether (used for pipelay observation). The standard 150HP
vehicle weighs 5 tonne and can manage a payload of 300kg and a through-frame lift of
3.5 tonnes. The UHD is 3m in length and can be provided with either seven or eight
SubAtlantic thrusters that provide forward thrust of 850kg and a vertical (upwards) thrust
of 700kg. Operation is aided by Schilling’s StationKeep DP/auto-pilot system that uses
inputs from onboard sensors including a DVL and FOG. There are two manipulators on
the UHD, with a standard fit of one Titan 4 and one Rigmaster unit providing seven
function and five functions respectively. The vehicle has been ordered by operators
including Acergy, Phoenix International, Allseas, Bourbon (through DNT Offshore),
Global Industries, DOF Subsea, OceanWorks International and C-Innovation.

7 The World ROV Market

7.6 Active WROV Units: FIELD SUPPORT
• Over the last five years the growth of WROVs used within field support has
exceeded that of those required for drilling operations, due to the broad range of
tasks that are now carried out by ROVs and huge volumes of infrastructure installed
offshore over the period.
• A total growth of 47% is estimated 2005-2008, but the last year has seen a decline
of approximately 2%. This is less severe than that of drill support – in some cases
the extension of drilling operations/contracts is more cost sensitive than field support
operations; many of which are a necessity for the continuous operation of offshore
installations.
• Between 2009 and 2014, strong recovery and growth is expected, with the number
of field support WROVs required reaching 267 per year by 2014 – a growth of 32%
over the period.
• Asia Pacific will see some of the most significant growth, with 25% of all field
support ROVs operating in this region over the next five years.

Disclaimer
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or warranty, express or implied, is made by the publisher as to the completeness, accuracy
or fairness of any information contained in it and we do not accept any responsibility in
relation to such information whether fact, opinion or conclusion that the reader may draw.
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those of the publishers.

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The World ROV Market 2010-2014 Report
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace    
Worldoils Oil, Gas and Offshore Marketplace

Equipment ID   : 922
Equipment name   : The World ROV Market 2010-2014 Report
Category   : Research Reports
 
Specifications  :
Name of the Report :
The World ROV Market 2010-2014

Contents

1 Summary .............17
1.1 Introduction ...........18
1.2 Underlying drivers ..........18
1.3 Technology ............19
1.4 The World WROV Market .........20
1.5 Conclusions ........ 21

2 Introduction to Unmanned Underwater Vehicles .........23
2.1 Vehicle Types .......24

3 Development and Evolution .......29
3.1 Classifications .........30
3.2 History & Development ........30
3.3 Changes in markets & applications .........31

4 Technology ..........35
4.1 ROV Elements .............36
4.2 Control and Simulation ............36
4.3 Navigation Sensors ........37
4.4 Acoustic Positioning Systems ...........40
4.5 ROV Dynamic Positioning Systems ..........45
4.6 Underwater Acoustic Imaging ............46
4.7 ROV Support Vessels and LAR systems ..........49
4.8 ROV Umbilicals and Winches ...........51
4.9 Frame Materials and Buoyancy ..........52
4.10 ROV Power ........53
4.11 Manipulators ........55
4.12 Cameras and Lights .........57
4.13 ROV Tooling .........60
4.14 Survey Sensors .........66

5 Applications ........71
5.1 Introduction .......72
5.2 Drilling Support .......... 72
5.3 Inspection, Repair & Maintenance ............73
5.4 Pipeline Operations..........74
5.5 Oil and Gas Exploration Phase .........77
5.6 Subsea Cables ...........81
5.7 Oil and Gas Decommissioning ...........84
5.8 Seabed Mining ...........86
5.9 Marine Renewable Energy ...........90
5.10 Research ............92
5.11 Aquaculture ...........97
5.12 Salvage.............97
5.13 Archeology ............. 99
5.14 Search & Rescue ...............99
5.15 Military & Security Applications .............100

6 Examples of ROVs ........105
6.1 Security & Inspection ROVs ...........106
6.2 Military ROVs ............107
6.3 Trenching, Burial and Mining ROVs ............110
6.4 Research ROVs ............112
6.5 Eyeball Class ROVs ............114
6.6 Light Work Class .........115
6.7 Work Class ROVs .........117

7 The World ROV Market ..........119
7.1 ROV Market Overview ............120
7.2 Macro-Economic Drivers ...........121
7.3 Pricing Assumptions ..........127
7.4 Active WROV Units: TOTAL ...........128
7.5 Active WROV Units: DRILL SUPPORT ..........129
7.6 Active WROV Units: FIELD SUPPORT ..........130
7.7 ROV Services Expenditure: TOTAL ..........131
7.8 Expenditure: DRILL SUPPORT ..........132
7.9 Expenditure: FIELD SUPPORT ..........133
7.10 Capital Expenditure ............134
7.11 Competitive Landscape – ROV Operators............135
7.12 ROV Operator Consolidation ............136
7.13 Competitive Landscape – ROV Manufacturers ...........137

8 Selected Company Profiles ..........139
8.1 ROV Manufacturers ..........140
8.2 ROV Operators .......143
8.3 Technology Providers .........145

Figures

Figure 1: WROV Operations – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .........20
Figure 2: WROV Capex – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .........21
Figure 3: Sentry AUV ............24
Figure 4: Eagle Ray AUV ............24
Figure 5: The Deep Drone ROV recovering debris from a downed aircraft ...... 25
Figure 6: Argus Rover .........26
Figure 7: VideoRay ...........26
Figure 8: Marine and Minerals Projects Seabed Crawler ...........27
Figure 9: Cable plough .............27
Figure 10: FOCUS 2 ROTV Being Recovered ...........28
Figure 11: Lockheed Martin Remote Multi-Mission Vehicle ..........28
Figure 12: Hydro Products RCV225 and RCV125 (1980) .........30
Figure 13: Jason 6,500m Depth Rated ROV .........31
Figure 14: Cable Burial Plough ..............32
Figure 15: LBV150SE-5 in hull inspection mode ...........32
Figure 16: K-Ster MCM ROV ...........33
Figure 17: Conceptual layout of the NEPTUNE (Canada) OOS ............33
Figure 18: SMD Seabed Mining System ..............34
Figure 19: The ISIS ROV containerized control room ...........36
Figure 20: The Stealth-2 ROV and control system ..........36
Figure 21: Example simulator imagery ..........37
Figure 22: Tritech LRPA200 4000m depth rated, 200m range altimeter .......... 37
Figure 23: Mini-Intelligent Pressure Sensor, titanium cased 6000m rated ....... 37
Figure 24: CompassPoint sensor ...............38
Figure 25: Tritech Intelligent Gyrocompass ..............38
Figure 26: NavQuest 300 DVL ...........39
Figure 27: Workhorse DVL ..............39
Figure 28: IXSEA PHINS INS ..........39
Figure 29: Sonardyne Lodestar INS .............39
Figure 30: Ultra-Short Baseline Technique .............40
Figure 31: Long Baseline Technique and Compatt Transponders (right) ......... 41
Figure 32: NASNet multiple user overview ..............42
Figure 33: NASNet Station (short extension) ............42
Figure 34: NASNet ROV hydrophone ..........42
Figure 35: NASNet MTrx unit ..........42
Figure 36: Sonardyne Scout USBL ........43
Figure 37: GIB-Plus Buoy ...........44
Figure 38: Gateway Buoy .........44
Figure 39: Short Baseline arrangement ........44
Figure 40: SBL transponder ..............44
Figure 41: PLSM Aqua-Metre R3000 ..........45
Figure 42: Combined acoustic & taut wire metrology .......45
Figure 43: ROV DP data flow and affects ............46
Figure 44: Tritech Super Seaking DST sonar display and unit (inset) ........ 47
Figure 45: 1171 OAS & Imaging Sonar equipment and imagery .............. 47
Figure 46: SRD Eclipse 240kHz multibeam imaging sonar .........48
Figure 47: DIDSON Imaging Sonar .............48
Figure 48: Visualisation of a pipeline inspection ...........48
Figure 49: Acoustic imagery from the Didson system ........48
Figure 50: Havila Phoenix subsea construction vessel ..........49
Figure 51: Stromek LARS .............50
Figure 52: Wire guided LARS with an ROV in its TMS garage .........50
Figure 53: Top Hat TMS .............50
Figure 54: ROV and TMS A-Frame LARS & Winch ...........51
Figure 55: MASH ROV Umbilical Winch (3400m of 34mm diameter cable) ..... 52
Figure 56: Videoray MROV and umbilical in transit case ............52
Figure 57: The MARUM Quest 4000m rated research all-electric ROV ........... 53
Figure 58: The Panther-XT all-electric ROV ..............54
Figure 59: AC Thruster .............54
Figure 60: Seaeye DC Thrusters on the Talisman AUV ...........54
Figure 61: 225HP HPU ...........55
Figure 62: Curvetech HTE Thruster ......55
Figure 63: Intelligent Valve Pack ........55
Figure 64: 13.5 Litre Compensator/Reservoir ........55
Figure 65: REMUS 600 AUV as seen from a Seabotix LBV (right) ......... 55
Figure 66: Manipulator tool-skid .........56
Figure 67: Titan 4 manipulator ........56
Figure 68: CSIP/ECA “ARM 5E” electronic manipulator .......56
Figure 69: Scandredge heavy duty ROV manipulator ..........56
Figure 70: Pan and Tilt cameras .............57
Figure 71: Titan Wrist Camera ................57
Figure 72: ManipCam MD 4000 ..........57
Figure 73: HDTV ROV Camera .........57
Figure 74: Crystal Cam micro video .............57
Figure 75: Seamor MROV ........57
Figure 76: 4500m rated OE11-143 HID ............58
Figure 77: 6000m rated Deep Multi-SeaLite (Halogen) .........58
Figure 78: LED Lighting (arrowed) on the ROPOS Research ROV (Canada)........58
Figure 79: AC-ROV Laser Scaling System ...........59
Figure 80: Tritech SeaStripe laser ...........59
Figure 81: Tritech Typhoon VMS Camera ............59
Figure 82: Early version of the ISS Camera on Falcon ROV .........59
Figure 83: Hydraulic grinder ..........60
Figure 84: ROV tooling manifold ...........60
Figure 85: Marine Growth Preventer .............61
Figure 86: CleanHull ROV .........61
Figure 87: Operation modes of the RovingBat ROV ........61
Figure 88: VideoRay MROV with metal thickness gauge .....62
Figure 89: Well casings cut with AWJC .......62
Figure 90: DWC System in use subsea .............62
Figure 91: Enhanced Deepwater Subsea Tree ............63
Figure 92: Torque Verification Tool ..........63
Figure 93: Tornado Torque Tool ........63
Figure 94: Tool Deployment Unit ...........64
Figure 95: IFOKUS ROV Stabs ...........64
Figure 96: ROVCON Mk 2 visualization ...........64
Figure 97: ROVCON Mk 2 Tie-in Tool ..........64
Figure 98: Pipeline clamp system ........65
Figure 99: Core drill ..........65
Figure 100: ROVDRILL ...........66
Figure 101: Cores from ROVDRILL ........66
Figure 102: ACV03 Survey ROV ............67
Figure 103: Atlas Fansweep 30 on Wayamba AUV ..........67
Figure 104: SeaBat 7125 Dataset .........67
Figure 105: Screenshot of imagery from a Tritech Seaking SSS .......68
Figure 106: Synthetic Aperture Sonar Principle ...........68
Figure 107: SAS Imagery from the Hugin AUV ............69
Figure 108: Synthetic Aperture Sonar Processing ...........69
Figure 109: Sub-Bottom Profiler Data .........69
Figure 110: ROV imagery of the BOP ...........73
Figure 111: ROV installed pipeline clamp ...........73
Figure 112: Deep C CP Probe and light activated display ..........74
Figure 113: S-Lay .............74
Figure 114: J-Lay .........74
Figure 115: Pipelay vessel Calamity Jane ..............75
Figure 116: Neptune CPT system at Woolacombe ...........75
Figure 117: IHC Engineering Business Rockdump ROV ..............76
Figure 118: TSS Pipetracker on a Seaeye ROV ........76
Figure 119: Focus-2 equipment spread ...........77
Figure 120: Z3000 Node deployment from ROV...........78
Figure 121: Optowave seismic sensor ...........78
Figure 122: EM Sensors awaiting deployment ..........79
Figure 123: Post-operation seabed survey showing leg depressions ..........80
Figure 124: Ormen Lange Template ............80
Figure 125: Drillship West Navigator ...........80
Figure 126: Assembly of a Submarine Repeater ......81
Figure 127: The CS Sovereign cable lay and repair ship .........81
Figure 128: Greenland Connect route map ..........82
Figure 129: Tracked cable maintenance ROV with cable tracker ......82
Figure 130: Gradiometer for munitions sweep during cable route survey ........ 83
Figure 131: C&C Technologies/ASV 5500 Semi-submersible ..........83
Figure 132: Thanet Offshore Wind Farm and the Polar Prince .........84
Figure 133: Deployment of cable plough ..........84
Figure 134: MARCAS-3 CMROV ...........84
Figure 135 JetCut system in operation subsea .........85
Figure 136: Akers Buoyancy Tank Assemblies in the Frigg project .........85
Figure 137: Sonsub Innovator 250HP WROV.........86
Figure 138: Global distribution of significant seafloor hydrothermal deposits......86
Figure 139: Russian flag planted on the Arctic seabed by submersible (2007) 87
Figure 140: Marine & Mineral Projects Mining Tool ..........87
Figure 141: The Peace in Africa diamond mining vessel ...........88
Figure 142: Subsea Mining Tool ..............88
Figure 143: Sagar Nidhi research vessel .............88
Figure 144: The Spider ROV proposed for use by Neptune Minerals ........89
Figure 145: Pacific interests of Neptune Minerals ..........89
Figure 146: Seabed sampling using ROV ........90
Figure 147: WHOI Nereus in ROV mode .........90
Figure 148: Oyster wave energy device .............91
Figure 149: Location of Barrow Offshore Wind Farm & the LBT1 Tractor ........ 91
Figure 150: ROV & surface imagery of the EMEC Open Hydro turbine ........... 91
Figure 151: Heliocranchia piglet squid at 1,050m off Nigeria .................92
Figure 152: Magnapinna Squid in the Shell Perdido Field ............92
Figure 153: Doc Ricketts ROV performing push coring ..........93
Figure 154: The inside of the Environmental Sample Processor ..............93
Figure 155: Launch of the Doc Ricketts ROV from the RV Western Flyer ....... 93
Figure 156: Deploying a Niskin bottle through the ice-sheet ..............94
Figure 157: Deploying SeaSoar .............94
Figure 158: Possible future OOS technologies ..........94
Figure 159: GITEWS seabed sensor and surface buoy ........95
Figure 160: The ANTARES project concept .........95
Figure 161: ANTARES sensors (l) and subsea junction box (r)........95
Figure 162: Remotely Operated Cable-Laying System ..........96
Figure 163: Installation of seabed penetrometer system ..........96
Figure 164: SCINI ROV ..............97
Figure 165: LBV 150 subsea ........97
Figure 166: LBV 150 topside ..........97
Figure 167: Mort removal scoop on a Seaeye Falcon ........97
Figure 168: Scanning Sonar imagery mosaic of a destroyed oil rig .........98
Figure 169: PolRec/ROLS baseplate ..........98
Figure 170: PolRec concept ............98
Figure 171: Jason Junior Observing one of Titanic’s Staterooms ...........99
Figure 172: Novaray MROV with wing .........99
Figure 173: Demonstration SAR UGV ..........99
Figure 174:A Selection of US Military Unmanned Marine Vehicles ..........100
Figure 175: Mine Clearance Diver ...........101
Figure 176: ECA Olister ........101
Figure 177: Gayrobot Pluto with CM101 demolition charge ......101
Figure 178: US MH60-S Helicopter with the AMNS ........102
Figure 179: BAE Systems Archerfish EMDV ...........102
Figure 180: The iRobot Transphibian ..........103
Figure 181: RoboLobster ..........103
Figure 182: The US Navy’s Avalon DSRV ........103
Figure 183: The NATO IROV on exercises .........104
Figure 184: The NATO SRV1 on the Norwegian patrol ship Harstad ..........104
Figure 185: Triggerfish ROV ...........104
Figure 186: Sea Max 1 ............104
Figure 187: Seamor 300F ...........106
Figure 188: Sea Otter Mk 2 ........106
Figure 189: VideoRay Pro 4 ............107
Figure 190: LBV150SE-5 with crawler unit ...........107
Figure 191: LBV600XL2 with LARS .............107
Figure 192: ECA PAP Mark 5..........108
Figure 193: ECA Olister ...........108
Figure 194: K-Ster ..........108
Figure 195: Deep Drone 7200 ........108
Figure 196: SeaFox IQ .........109
Figure 197: SeaFox C as part of the ANMS .......109
Figure 198: AN/SLQ being launched from USS Dextrous in 2004 ..........109
Figure 199: Rock Dump ROV ...........110
Figure 200: Grab Excavation System ...........110
Figure 201: IHC Engineering Business BPL3 ..........110
Figure 202: CTC Marine Projects Ultra Trencher .........111
Figure 203: Capjet cable burial ROV ........111
Figure 204: Seafloor Mining Tool Concept ..........112
Figure 205: Victor research ROV .........112
Figure 206: KAIKO 7000 .........113
Figure 207: Hercules ROV ......113
Figure 208: Hydra Minimum .......114
Figure 209: Perseo GT ............114
Figure 210: Topside equipment ............114
Figure 211: Control Unit ..........114
Figure 212: Seaeye Lynx ...........115
Figure 213: Lynx Control Room ..........115
Figure 214: Super Mowhawk ........115
Figure 215: Topside equipment .........115
Figure 216: H1000 ROV ................116
Figure 217: Sub Atlantic Comanche with Innovatum Gradiometer .........116
Figure 218: Saab Seaeye Jaguar .......... 117
Figure 219: Hydra Millenium Plus ............... 117
Figure 220: PSS Triton XLX .............118
Figure 221: Schilling UHD ............118
Figure 222: Global Primary Energy Demand 1966-2008 .............121
Figure 223: Global Oil Supply 1930-2025 ... 121
Figure 224: Global Oil Supply Mix ........122
Figure 225: Global Natural Gas Supply Mix  122
Figure 226: Offshore Drilling Activity by Region 2004-2013 ...........123
Figure 227: Global Drilling Activity by Water Depth 2004-2013 ............123
Figure 228: Installed Base of Offshore Pipelines 1950-2014 ..........124
Figure 229: Annual Offshore Pipeline Installations 1950-2014 .......124
Figure 230: Global Subsea Completions by Region 1994-2015 .........125
Figure 231: Global Subsea Completions by Water Depth 1994-2015 ............ 125
Figure 232: Installed Base of Offshore Fixed Platforms 1950-2014 ............... 126
Figure 233: Subsea Well Abandonments 2003-2015 .............126
Figure 234: Pricing Assumptions (Indexed) 2005-2014 .........127
Figure 235: WROV TOTAL – Active Units 2005-2014 ..................128
Figure 236: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ................... 129
Figure 237: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ............130
Figure 238: WROV TOTAL – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .............131
Figure 239: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ....... 132
Figure 240: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ....... 133
Figure 241: WROV Capex – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ...........134
Figure 242: Work-class ROV Operator Fleet ...........135

Tables

Table 1: WROV Operations – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ........20
Table 2: WROV Capex – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ........ 21
Table 3: WROV TOTAL – Active Units 2005-2014 ...........127
Table 4: WROV TOTAL – Active Units 2005-2014 ..........128
Table 5: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ............129
Table 6: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Active Units 2005-2014 ........130
Table 7: WROV TOTAL – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ............131
Table 8: WROV DRILL SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ............ 132
Table 9: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 ............ 133
Table 10: WROV FIELD SUPPORT – Global Expenditure 2005-2014 .......... 134

3 Development and Evolution

In the mid 1970s there were still only three ROVs in commercial use, but by the mid
1980s this had grown to around the 300 mark and at the end of the 1990s the number
built had grown by another order of magnitude.

Move to deepwater
By the end of the 1990s, ROVs had become more reliable and a great deal had been
learnt about tooling and operational interfaces. Operations became more complex and
possible at greater depths with deepwater ROVs being developed in many countries
including Canada, China, France, Japan, Norway, UK and the USA. Special cases
included a number of 6,000m (and deeper) rated vehicles developed for research and
academic work, but mainstream units were now available with 2,000m and 3,000m
ratings. Dedicated deepwater ROV vessels are now included in a number of major
subsea contractors fleets.

Smart ROVs
ROV control systems have become increasingly complex and more powerful, with
operators now able to act increasingly as a supervisor for the majority of routine
operations and only directly control the vehicle during complex operations. ROV autopilot
systems have been developed by ROV manufacturers and software companies
(such as SeeByte) and these have benefited from commercial, off the shelf availability of
sensors such as Doppler velocity logs and inertial navigation systems that were
previously restricted to the military sector. The use of such systems allows the ROV to
be located with a much greater surety of position than when relying on conventional
acoustic positioning systems alone, especially in deepwater and in a very harsh acoustic
environment.

ROV operations can be simulated to a high degree of realism for both training and
mission design and graphical visualisation software allows the representation of nonvisual
sensed data in a manner that allows the operator to see the results of acoustic
and laser scanned data when visibility is so poor that conventional cameras cannot be
used. In an effort to reduce the number of personnel working offshore, some companies
have developed ROV control systems that can be operated from an office ashore while
the ROV is far offshore in a manner very similar to the way that some unmanned aerial
vehicles flown in Iraq were controlled from mainland USA.

Hybrids on the horizon
Vehicles that attempt to combine the manoeuvrability, manipulator and work
characteristics of an ROV with the freedom of an AUV are being developed, with a
number of prototypes appearing in the early 2000s. As 2010 approached, several of
these projects are again being promoted and taken forward, with initial field deployments
being mooted for 2011. Adoption of hybrid intervention vehicles will allow an expensive
component of routine field maintenance (the ROV support vessel) to be partially
removed in situations where the vehicle could remain on location in a subsea field, or be
deployed from a floating production platform. Main contenders include Swimmer, PAIV
and SAUVIM – though it is unclear on the ability of the latter vehicle to be freed from its
links to the US military and to operate in the worldwide commercial sphere.

3.3 Changes in markets & applications
Submarine cables
Fibre-optic (as opposed to copper) telecommunications cables were introduced to the
marine environment in 1988 and over the next 9 years the investment in fibre-optic
cables totalled $19.8 bn driven by the almost exponential growth in internet traffic and
the need for reliable global telecommunications. The major market change in the late
1990s and early 2000s was the growth and then collapse of this submarine cable.

4 Technology

The underwater environment, it is not wave action that is of concern but rather tidal and
oceanic currents.
DP systems provide commands to individual thrusters based on predictions of what the
vehicle’s motion will actually be (as a result of a history of external forces acting on the
vehicle) compared with the desired motion or position. ROV DP systems have few
sources of position reference available to them when compared to surface vessels (that
can access sources including multiple GPS systems, laser and radar referencing to
surface platforms), but those that are available include DVL, heading and motion
sensors, altimeters and acoustic positioning systems. The data from the various
reference sensors is transmitted via the ROV umbilical back to the surface vessel where
a DP computer predicts the motion of the vehicle and so computes the necessary
thruster commands.

The majority of WROV manufacturers have developed some form of DP system and are
supplying them as part of a standard suite of equipment. DP systems have either been
developed wholly in-house or with the assistance of specialist providers such as
SeeByte (UK). It should be noted that the brains of an ROV DP system actually resides
in the control room computer systems rather than on the vehicle itself. The same applies
(in the majority of cases) to INS systems.

Tasks that could benefit from ROV DP include pipeline and riser inspection. Risers are
pipes that carry oil from seabed pipelines to floating or fixed production platforms and
must be routinely inspected for structural damage and fatigue. Pipeline risers to floaters
move in response to current and wave action and the use of autonomous control
software that maintains the ROV at the correct distance, orientation and inclination to the
riser, whilst following it from seabed to surface, represents a significant step in reducing
operator fatigue and may possibly improve the data quality from the inspection.

Case Study – Schilling StationKeep
The Schilling StationKeep system has been in use for a number of years and has five
operating modes:
• Full StationKeep – the control system maintains ROV position against currents
and tether motion. On operator input, mode de-activates.
• Semi-StationKeep – operator’s hand movements will result in ROV movement
and then the control system will keep ROV at new position.
• Cartesian Displacement – allows the operator to specify movement in X, Y and
Z axes.
• Polar Displacement – allows operator to specify a distance and bearing to
move.
• AutoTrack – interfaces with external inputs (pipe-tracking sensors for example).

Case Study – SeeByte SeeTrack Offshore V2.2
SeeTrack Offshore is a DP system that can be retrofitted to ROV control systems
provided there are outputs available from a DVL and a heading reference system. The
system provides station-keeping and point and click ROV operation – once the operator
selects a destination position, the DP system compensates for the effect of currents.
Added functionality is available with an optional tracking module that can accept and
process data from acoustic imaging systems and pipe-trackers.

4.6 Underwater Acoustic Imaging
Visibility underwater is often very limited: the ambient light levels can fall to zero as
depth increases: any sediment that is washed off the seabed by a vehicles thrusters will
remain in suspension for some time, occluding any view. ROVs use acoustic systems
that have their roots in the WWII Sound Navigation and Ranging (sonar) technology but
that can now not only detect and provide ranges to targets, but can also classify features
and objects.

In order to provide information about what lies ahead of the ROV, sonar beams are
electronically scanned over a sector, or physically rotated to collect data. Different sonar
head units are selected for different ranges and resolutions and the speed at which they
scan (and thus build up an acoustic image) will also vary. Multiple sonar heads can be
used simultaneously to give the operator finely detailed close range information, or data

5 Applications

A WROV was used to operate the suction pile system on the templates (note the two
hatches on top of each pile column) so that the template could be secured in the soft
seabed. Drilling through the templates commenced in November 2005 from the drill ship
West Navigator, followed by installation of subsea wellhead control systems. The field
officially started production in late 2007. Drilling continued from the West Navigator (on
Template B) until the vessel suffered blowback damage while trying to disconnect from a
well in severe weather conditions in early 2008.

A much feared incident, blowbacks are the uncontrolled release of wellhead gas,
normally after inadvertently piercing gas deposits near the surface. Unchecked blowback
can cause catastrophic damage and drilling was stopped until repairs were made. The
Leiv Erikson drilling rig was brought in to compensate for the delays in drilling, drilling will
continue until at least 2013. The third of the Ormen Lange Templates was installed using
the Heerema Marine Contrctors heavy lift semi-submersible Thialf in May 2009. The
fourth template will be installed in deeper water than the other three and there are likely
to be significant challenges to be overcome when choosing a route for the connecting
pipelines.

5.6 Subsea Cables
Telecommunications Cables
The first transatlantic telephone cable to use optical fibre was TAT-8, which went into
operation in 1988. Modern optical fibre repeaters use a solid-state optical amplifier,
usually an Erbium-doped fibre amplifier. The system also permits wavelength-division
multiplexing, which dramatically increases the capacity of the fibre. The optic fibre used
in undersea cables is chosen for its exceptional clarity, permitting runs of more than 100
kilometres between repeaters to minimize the number of amplifiers and the distortion
they cause. The cables, branching units and repeaters are all fabricated and assembled
onshore and long sections of cable are loaded onto dedicated vessels so that they can
be deployed in a single, continuous operation.

The market for submarine cable systems enjoyed a mini-boom in 2007/2008, with nearly
every one of the 42 cable laying ships occupied. According to a report by T Soja &
Associates, around 85,000 km of cable is expected to be installed annually over the next
few years, which is comparable to the activity in 2000, when 100,000 km was installed.
The apparent upswing in subsea cable activity is partly due to the addition of new routes
to under-connected continents with developing economies, such as Africa, but the more
important driver is the rising demand for intercontinental capacity.

ROVs are used during the initial route survey, the actual lay process as well as for
ongoing maintenance and repairs. The subsea cable market, with its demanding
reliability requirements and specialist installation skills, is dominated by manufacturing
and installation contractors Alcatel-Lucent and Tyco Telecommunications and by repair
and maintenance contractors such as Global Marine Systems.

Case Study – Greenlands new cable network
Alcatel-Lucent installed a 2,100 km section of Tele Greenlands new submarine cable
network, with the lay vessel Ile de Sein arriving in Nuuk in September 2008.

6 Examples of ROVs

Perry Slingsby Systems Triton XLX
The Triton XLX is a heavy WROV available with 150 or 250 HP of onboard hydraulic
power and with depth ratings of either 3,000 or 4,000m. The high power version can
manage a payload of up to 550kg. Vehicle length is 3.3m, height is 2m and weight is 4.9
tonnes for the 150HP (5.6 tonnes for the 250HP version). The eight hydraulically
powered thrusters provide 1,100kg of forward thrust and 900kg of vertical thrust. The
XLX has a DP/auto pilot system and is operated from a TMS (available in a Top Hat
configuration with between 350 and 650 of tether, or a garage style version with up to
1000m of tether. Standard workskids for the vehicle include those for survey and
bathymetry, suction pile installation, variable ballast, jetting or tooling.

The Triton XLX saw its first orders in 2008 and is now operated by companies including
Fugro, Aquanos, Mermaid Offshore, Oceanteam 2000, DOF Subsea, Integrated Subsea
Services. DOF will be installing one of the vehicles onboard the Olympic Zeus vessel for
operations in the Curlew field in 2009.

Schilling UHD
The UHD is an ultra-heavy WROV with a depth rating of 4,000m (3,000m optional) and
installed power of up to 200HP (100, 150 or 200HP optional) that was first delivered in
2006. The UHD is normally operated from a TMS that can be extended to a maximum of
900m of 35mm diameter tether (used for pipelay observation). The standard 150HP
vehicle weighs 5 tonne and can manage a payload of 300kg and a through-frame lift of
3.5 tonnes. The UHD is 3m in length and can be provided with either seven or eight
SubAtlantic thrusters that provide forward thrust of 850kg and a vertical (upwards) thrust
of 700kg. Operation is aided by Schilling’s StationKeep DP/auto-pilot system that uses
inputs from onboard sensors including a DVL and FOG. There are two manipulators on
the UHD, with a standard fit of one Titan 4 and one Rigmaster unit providing seven
function and five functions respectively. The vehicle has been ordered by operators
including Acergy, Phoenix International, Allseas, Bourbon (through DNT Offshore),
Global Industries, DOF Subsea, OceanWorks International and C-Innovation.

7 The World ROV Market

7.6 Active WROV Units: FIELD SUPPORT
• Over the last five years the growth of WROVs used within field support has
exceeded that of those required for drilling operations, due to the broad range of
tasks that are now carried out by ROVs and huge volumes of infrastructure installed
offshore over the period.
• A total growth of 47% is estimated 2005-2008, but the last year has seen a decline
of approximately 2%. This is less severe than that of drill support – in some cases
the extension of drilling operations/contracts is more cost sensitive than field support
operations; many of which are a necessity for the continuous operation of offshore
installations.
• Between 2009 and 2014, strong recovery and growth is expected, with the number
of field support WROVs required reaching 267 per year by 2014 – a growth of 32%
over the period.
• Asia Pacific will see some of the most significant growth, with 25% of all field
support ROVs operating in this region over the next five years.

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